Text of speech delivered at the AGM of the Jamiat ul Ulama, South Africa in 2006
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.
Indeed, all praises are due to Allahﷻ, we praise Him, we seek His help, we ask for His forgiveness, and we rely solely on Him. We seek His refuge from the evil in our souls and from our wicked deeds. Whoever Allahﷻ guides, no one can misguide. And whomever Allahﷻ allows to be misguided (leaves alone to follow his own desires), no one can guide. I bear witness that there is no one worthy of worship except Allahﷻ, He is One, with no partners, and I testify that Muhammadﷺ is His Messenger and His slave.
Rasoolullahﷺ said: “The best speech is the Book of Allahﷻ and the best guidance and example is that of Muhammadﷺ. And the worst of all things are the newly invented things (in religion), for every innovation is error and misguidance.” [Reported by Muslim] and in another narration, “every newly invented matter (in religion) is a bid’ah and every bida’a is a misguidance and every misguidance is in the (hell) Fire.” [Reported by At-Tirmithi].
I want to begin by quoting from one of the greatest of our Ulama in India, Allama Syed Sulaiman Nadwi (RA) who said: “The thing that has spread ignorance and misguided the most is the differentiation between Dunya and Deen. The work of Deen was declared to be different from the work of Dunya. The orders of Allahﷻ were separated from the orders of Caesar (world, government). The way to succeed in Deen was stated to be different from the way to succeed in Deen. Students of Islam, this was the biggest mistake that was made but its veil was torn apart by the light of the message of Muhammadﷺ. It (the message of Islam) showed that to do the work of the Dunya with good intention and sincerity according to the way permitted by Allahﷻ is Deen. That means that living in the Dunya doing its work, but according to the orders of Allahﷻ is the essence of religion (Deendari). People think that to sit in seclusion in a cave on a hilltop, engaged exclusively in Dhikr and worship, living a life of self-selected poverty away from people, is Deendari (piety). And to spend time with your friends, family, parents, children, to help them in worldly matters or to help yourself, is Dunyadari (worldliness). Islam wiped out this false belief and clarified that to fulfill your worldly responsibilities, earn your living and participate in the affairs of the world according to the orders of Allahﷻ is in fact Deendari (piety).” Syed Sulaiman Nadwi.
I am here to invoke the right that Allahﷻ has given me, as a follower of Islam, to go to the Ulama and ask them to lead me on the path of righteousness. This is my right upon you. And I ask you with humbleness, to give me my right.
I have heard from all the Ulama that I have listened to and read, that Islam is a complete way of life and not merely a way of worship. There is guidance in Islam for every aspect of life that an individual leads, irrespective of the boundaries of time and space. I have also heard that this Islamic way of life is good for all time, until the Hour is established. About you, the Prophetﷺ said (approximate meaning of the hadith): “The Ulama are the inheritors of the Anbiya (Messengers). The Anbiya don’t bequeath dinars and dirhams. They bequeath knowledge. So, whoever acquires knowledge is indeed fortunate.”
What is unstated in this hadith but is its soul is what the Ulama are supposed to do with the knowledge that they have. The Anbiya showed people the way and taught people what they knew. They did not simply collect the knowledge from Allahﷻ and keep it to themselves. They did not merely become storehouses of knowledge but established markets of the knowledge where it could be learnt and benefited from. That was the duty of the Anbiya, to spread the word without fear of anyone. And Allahﷻ promised to protect them as long as they carried out this duty.
Al Ma’aidah:67 O Messenger, proclaim the (message of Islam) which has been sent to you from your Rabb. If you did not do this, you would not have fulfilled and proclaimed His mission. And Allah will defend you from the people (who mean mischief). For Allah guides not those who reject Faith.
About the mission of Rasoolullahﷺ Allahﷻ said:
Al Ahzab: 21 You have indeed in the Messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of life) for any one whose hope is in Allah and the Final Day, and who engages much in the Praise of Allah.
There are two critical points in this ayah:
That the life of Rasoolullahﷺ is the best example of the Islamic Way of Life.
That Islam is a Way of Life and not merely a way of worship but the way to lead one’s entire life in all its aspects.
It is essential to keep this perspective in mind as you read the rest of this document.
Historical Perspective – Europe and Christianity
In medieval Europe a combination of the pressure of kings to act at will and the self-serving politics of the Church resulted in a formal division between the Christian Church and the State. What added to this, especially when scientific education became popular (ironically as a result of the contribution of Muslim scientists) was the alienation of the common people from Biblical knowledge because the Bible had been changed by its guardians and no longer made sense to a scientific mind. They found that what their religion said was so divorced from the reality that they had only two choices left to them. Either to discard all religion (which is what Darwinism, Marxism and the various atheistic theories did) or to hold religion as something ceremonial to respect but not as something that can actually be used in real life. Most people made the second choice. So, they went to Church on Sundays and listened to sermons but during the week they continued to live their lives in accordance with their own personal desires. They found nothing contradictory or ridiculous to sit in the same pew with their live-in boy or girl friend and listening to a sermon about faithfulness in marriage and against extra-marital sex.
The State allowed the Church to operate freely in the area of theology, narrowly defined as the study of the Bible, rituals of worship (baptism, marriage and funerals etc.) and preaching. All these were acknowledged as the responsibility of the priests and the State and common people would not ‘interfere’ in them except to provide funding at their will. Priests were given the right to raise funds for their work (building churches, running Sunday schools, seminaries and monasteries, publishing religious literature and missionary work of preaching). All considered to be ‘good work’ which it was the role of the church and priests to do. So also, it was their role to be pure and celibate (extreme form of ‘purity’) and for the women among them to be modest and covered from head to toe (nuns) and to be engaged with only charity and such matters and leave the world and worldly matters alone.
The unspoken condition was that the Church and its priests refrained from ‘interfering’ (criticizing, correcting) in the lives of the kings and common people. If the Church toed this line, it got State sponsorship. When it refused (as in the case of Henry VIII – who founded the Anglican Church as a breakaway from Catholicism in the 16th century. The Church of England broke with Rome, largely because Pope Clement VII refused to grant Henry an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon), people simply went ahead and either found some ‘cooperative’ priests who were willing to legitimize their wrongdoing. Or they went ahead and did what they wanted to anyway. This only served to enhance the divide between the Church and the common people and gradually the role of the Church was reduced merely to the symbolic.
Historical Perspective – The Muslim World
Interestingly the same kind of division happened in the Muslim world. Some reasons were the same; i.e. the recalcitrant attitude of kings and common people about following the precepts of the faith in areas where these conflicted with their own desires. Ulama who disagreed with Muslim kings and Khulafa were brutally persecuted, even murdered. Ulama who were cooperative and allowed things which they had no right to allow, simply to please their masters, were praised, supported and enriched. Common people went fatwa shopping and praised those Ulama who legitimized their wrongdoing or at least did not openly criticize it. This unfortunate trend continues to this day.
In the face of severe persecution, Ulama retreated from the limelight and took refuge in their Khankhas and restricted themselves to protecting and teaching the scriptures. They deliberately stayed away from matters of a worldly nature and perhaps unconsciously or in times of intense persecution even consciously, agreed to separate their activity from the real world and retreated into their Madaaris and Khankhas. They confined themselves to the study and teaching of the Qur’an and Hadith, rituals of worship and its related aspects (births, marriages and deaths) and some specific issues of Fiqh. They became and created super specialists in the religious texts with no attempt to look at their application to fast changing external realities of society. And they also unconsciously and without that intent, started preparing ‘priests’; students whose role was seen as being confined to Imaamat in masajid and teaching in Madaaris. Interestingly, they even called the Darul Uloom or Ja’amia Islamia, a ‘Seminary’ and its Nazim or Muhtamim, ‘The Rector’. It is interesting to note that no attempt was made at least to be distinct from Christian Religious institutions in nomenclature.
All scientific and current knowledge was shunned and considered as being beneath the dignity of Ulama to study. Therefore, Ulama and students became less and less knowledgeable about science and technology, economics and politics and appeared as being ‘ignorant’ in society. Since they did not (and still don’t) understand science, technology and current knowledge, most of them have no idea how to use it to benefit Islam or Muslims. Or to ‘translate’ theology to help ordinary Muslims understand its relevance to their lives today. The same attitude was applied to all worldly subjects and so gradually the leadership of the world passed from the hands of the Ulama into the hands of others.
Until the 19th century students went to an A’alim to learn a particular branch of theology. When they finished there, they went to someone else to learn another branch. When formal Madaris were established (in the 20th century), they simply brought several Ulama, each an expert in his branch of theology, together in one place. The curriculum simply followed the earlier method of learning where each A’alim taught in his expert area with no reference to what another A’alim would teach the students in the next period.
For example, if students of a class are doing the Tafsir of the Ayaat of Sura Al Baqara relating to interest-based financing and the writing of contracts in their Qur’anic Tafsir class, they do not necessarily study the Kitaab ul Buyoo’ in their Hadith class. Nor do they study the (Principles) Matha’il of Fiqh to do with business, contractual dealings, financing and its current forms in the world. Therefore, to connect one branch of theological knowledge with another and then to interpret it in the context of current social realities is something that is simply left to the student’s ability with predictable results. Not surprisingly this has created a disconnect for ordinary Muslims between what Islam teaches and the questions they face in their daily lives.
Ignorance as always breeds fear and so also in this case where there is a universal phobia (though not always acknowledged) among the Ulama about science and technology. Ulama forgot that the Qur’an itself encourages the person to research in the creation and recognize the signs (Ayaat) of Allahﷻ. The Qur’an teaches the way in which this is to be done; the sequence of guidance without which one sees the signs of the Creator yet fails to recognize Him in those signs. It was the responsibility of the Ulama and to show the world the right way to research scientific knowledge, but they did not shoulder this responsibility. Instead they discarded scientific knowledge and called it a source of misguidance, without recognizing that the danger lay in the method of teaching by the secularists, not in the knowledge itself. This increased the alienation even more.
The liberal atmosphere in universities became another cause to criticize and fear them and so Muslim students were discouraged from going to university. Strangely there was no attempt to go to university and change the atmosphere to one that is more oriented towards learning. There was a strange lack of confidence in our own theology and our ability to persuade or influence anyone about the Islamic way of life. That is why there was the unspoken fear that if our students went to university they would get ‘corrupted’ while the fact that they could conceivably have influenced others, was neither acknowledged nor even considered possible. Sadly, this attitude exists even today in many quarters.
The Qur’an on the other hand encourages scientific research and education and also teaches the way in which this must be done. It teaches the sequence that must be followed in order that scientific education becomes a source of guidance and strengthening of Imaan. It draws attention to the fact that if this sequence is not followed, then there is danger of the student going astray.
Allahﷻ describes those people who He calls People of Understanding (Ulul Albab). It is important to understand this description and see if we fit it or not as we consider ourselves to be intelligent.
A’al Imraan:190-91 Behold! In the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of night and day there are indeed Signs for People of Understanding. They are those who celebrate the praises of Allah standing sitting and lying down on their sides and contemplate the (wonders of) creation in the heavens and the earth (with the thought): Our Rabb! Not for nothing have you created (all) this! Glory to You! Give us salvation from the penalty of the fire.
Please notice that Allahﷻ uses the term WA and not AU when he connects His Dhikr with scientific research وَيَتَفَكَّرُونَ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ. Teaching theology and scientific knowledge are not antagonistic or mutually exclusive in Islam, but one leads to the other and strengthens the other. The Qur’an teaches the methodology to do this so that the student sees the signs of Allahﷻ in the world by means of this knowledge. But somewhere we lost this connection and lost our position as leaders in science and technology. We lost this because we did not follow the Qur’an. Not because we lost the scientists in wars. If the sequence that the Qur’an teaches is followed, then mankind has no alternative but to recognize Allahﷻ in His creation and to exclaim in wonder and amazement at the Majesty of the Creator;
“O Our Rabb! Not for nothing have you created this. Glory to You. Give us salvation from the penalty of the fire.”
On the other hand, when science is taught from an atheistic or secular perspective, as if there is no Creator, then it perpetuates this lie. Students get confused. Their basic questions can’t be answered. They confuse the “Why” with the “How”. They fail to learn the purpose behind the created thing and remain engrossed in its nature. This can lead to an irreligious attitude and an alienation from Islam and the message of Allahﷻ. Unfortunately, our Ulama due to their own ignorance of science and technology looked at these branches of knowledge with suspicion and did not even think of becoming its teachers in the Qur’anic way. Secularists on the other hand taught science from an atheistic perspective and the division between the average Muslim and Ulama widened.
Strategy for the future
There is much that needs to be done and many changes that need to be made if the Ulama are to take the leadership role in the Ummah and the world. In my view there are three major steps that need to be taken. The implementation strategy for each can be worked out in detail.
- Accepting the mantle of leadership for the Ummah and the World
This is the first requirement in my view from which everything else will flow. Unless Ulama accept that it is indeed their responsibility to lead the world in every sense of the term, no change can take place in the current situation where they merely seem to consider it their duty to preserve and teach theology alone. If Islam is indeed a way of life (Nizaam-e-hayaat) and not a system of belief (Nazariya) alone, then it is essential that we learn to talk about the whole of life in all its aspects, social, political, economic and personal. The religious aspect permeates all of these and is not something to be spoken of or dealt with in isolation as happens today. We accept this in principle and in word, but we do nothing about implementing this in our teaching.
- Becoming and creating Standard Bearers of Islam
The gap between the Ulama and the ordinary Muslim is very wide and widening. The gap between the A’alim of Islam and the non-Muslim is beyond description. If the Ulama are to be the leaders of the Ummah and of the world, then this gap must be bridged. It is the responsibility of those who aspire to leadership to create followership. In order to do this, it is not enough, even useless and harmful, to simply sermonize and “talk at” people. It is essential to become and create Standard Bearers of Islam. People who are living, walking, talking, working and visible examples of the excellence of the Islamic Way of Life.
The ayah I quoted about the life of the Messenger of Allahﷻ is a clear proof that this was the intention of Allahﷻ in sending our beloved Prophetﷺ, to demonstrate to the world, what it means to live like a Muslim. He came to SHOW Islam, not merely to TALK ABOUT Islam. So, if we truly want to follow the Sunnah of Rasoolullahﷺ it is essential to translate Islamic theory into practice and give people tools to apply in their lives which will lead to success in this life itself. This is the promise of Allahﷻ, for those who practice the Islamic Way of Life, success both in this world as well as in the next. It is success in this world that is visible and when people see the benefit of Applied Islam, they will not need anyone to exhort them to practice it. It is not enough to merely teach one branch of Islam alone, in isolation.
Social change is not brought about using force. It is created by those who believe in it, practicing it with passion and dedication in a way that demonstrates its superiority over other ways. As in the case of the Montessori teaching methodology or even something as mundane as western clothing (trousers and shirt) people saw those who used them, liked what they saw and adopted it without any compulsion from the original users. So also, in the case of the English language, others were influenced by the native speakers of English who refused to speak in any other language and more and more people started using English in their work, wrote in it, spoke it and today it is a universal language. The same thing is happening rapidly today with respect to Western (especially American) culture. It is changing our values, traditions, customs and ways of relating. All this without any overt force from America. The American way is spreading all over the world simply by Americans practicing those ways themselves, publicly, with confidence and without apology. So even though some of the ways are detrimental to society, they are adopted by the ignorant because they are momentarily pleasant to some.
Let us remember that these influences happen because the originators of all these ways refuse to use any other way and insisted on using their own. They did not compel anyone else. They merely used their own ways themselves. Simply seeing them influenced others to change their own age-old customs, practices and their own ways got relegated to ceremonial purposes. That is why Indian (or local dress in British colonies) dress is worn only on ceremonial occasions while Western dress is worn all through the year. This is just one example. There are many others. The key is to practice Islam confidently and to become its Standard Bearers of Islam in all aspects of our lives.
Let us remember that Muslims know the Why of obedience to Allahﷻ. We need to teach them the How. The reason Islam is not practiced is a tools issue, not an ideology issue. For example, it is not enough to talk about the fact that Abdur Rahman Ibn Awf (RA) who migrated without any resources, started with no capital at his disposal, yet he became the richest man in Madinah in a period of less than 10 years using Halaal means of business. It is necessary to teach people the business model of Abdur Rahman Ibn Awf (RA) so that they can go forward and also become millionaires using Halaal Islamic business methods. If we can’t do this, then telling the story of Abdur Rahman Ibn Awf (RA) is of no practical benefit.
But instead of following the Sunnah of Rasoolullahﷺ who taught the trader how to trade, when we preach without demonstrating or practicing, it creates a credibility gap and leads people to believe that the Deen is merely a way of worship and has no practical use in this life. It is for this reason that Sayyidina Omar Ibn Al Khattab (RA) said that a trader has no right to trade unless he first learns the Fiqh of trade. I ask our Ulama, if we are teaching business management classes in our Madaris and Ja’amiaat. If not, then I ask them to let me know, where the Muslim businessman should go to learn the way the Sahaba of Rasoolullahﷺ did business. The same thing is true of all other aspects of life. Be it teaching and learning, psychology and counseling, law and justice, science and technology, medicine and engineering or anything else. We need to teach people how to demonstrate the Islamic Way of Life in what they do in the world. We need to create Standard Bearers of Islam who will Show the way. To which Darul Uloom or Ja’amia can a person go, to learn the complete Islamic Way of Life – Nizaam-e-hayaat?
Humbly and with respect, I submit that it is the challenge of the Ulama to teach Islam in a way where it is truly seen as the best way of life in all aspects of life. This is what is needed to bridge the gap between the Ulama and the Awwam-un-Naas that currently exists. Our Ja’amiat and Madaris must teach science and technology, business and political science. But they must teach it differently from the way it is taught in secular schools. They must teach it in the Qur’anic way and relate what they teach to the Islamic Way. They must help the students to recognize their Creator through seeing His signs in the world around them. That is the true meaning of Da’awa of Islam. It is essential for Ulama to also create active and vibrant fora for interaction and Mashwara between themselves and intellectuals, professionals, technologists, scientists, educators, politicians and administrators, men and women, from among the Muslims. These fora can be formed on a national basis with local chapters which meet periodically and deliberate on current issues that affect the Muslims in the country and the world.
These fora can also be utilized to influence public opinion and to evolve a concerted strategy for united action. Finally, and most importantly these will be a wonderful way to create a mindshare between the Ulama and leaders of Muslim society and a very powerful way of bringing about much needed social change in the Muslim Ummah.
- Become proactive activists for the truth in the socio-political arena
The true face of Islam was seen when the A’alim was also the Khalifa. During the rule of Rasoolullahﷺ, his Khulafa-ar-Raashida, Omar bin Abdul Aziz (R) and other righteous scholar-rulers, Islam shone forth in its true glory as the Right way of leading life. As Allahﷻ said:
Al An’aam: 165 It is He who has made you (His) agents (Khulafa’a) inheritors of the earth: He has raised you in ranks some above others: that he may try you in the gifts that He has given you: for your Rabb is quick in punishment: yet He is indeed Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful.
Let us remember that there is no gift that is more valuable than the gift of Ilm (knowledge) and it is a gift that we will be held accountable for on the Day of Judgment. Let us remember that Khilafat and Wiraasat of the Anbiya come with a responsibility. That is the reason I submit that it is not acceptable for Ulama to seek the comfort, safety and seclusion of their Madaaris and Khankhas while the world is reeling around as if in a drunken state. I submit with all respect that it is the responsibility of those who know the way, to show it to those who don’t know it, even if the ignorant ones don’t have the sense to ask. It is the responsibility of those who know the way to find different ways of gaining the trust of those they seek to lead and then lead them on the right path.
In order to do this, Ulama must address issues on a global plane. The current situation where there is no meaningful collaboration even between Islamic universities and Ja’amiaat around the world is a deplorable thing. Our problem as Ulama and as the Ummah is not that we are not united. It is that we have no strategy for unity, for influencing or for anything else. We urgently and desperately need to think collectively and on a global plane.
The British parliament for example has a Shadow Cabinet where the Opposition Party deliberates on all issues that the Ruling Party is working on and creates shadow legislation in the light of their own ideology. As Muslims, where is our Shadow Cabinet? The same situation prevails about issues of Muslims in different countries. I submit that there is a critical need to set up a Think Tank consisting of Ulama and experts who can think of various issues and suggest proactive steps to deal with them. Our current slowness even in reacting to emerging issues is very detrimental and harmful to us. We not only need to improve our speed of response, but we need to be able to anticipate and act before issues become critical.
Strategies for Change: Some suggestions
In my view the single most critical thing that distinguishes Islam from all other religions and ideologies is its focus and emphasis on knowledge. The only thing that Allahﷻ taught His Messengerﷺ to ask for increase in, is knowledge. It is for this reason that the scholars of Islam have a very special place in Muslim society. For various historical reasons, this place has been lost for many decades. The time has come however where it is essential for Ulama all over the world to realize their real responsibility and arise to take up the mantle of leadership once again.
This paper is respectfully submitted for consideration and lists the changes that I believe are necessary to make if the Ulama of Islam are once again to get the prominence and influence that they had in early Islamic history.
- Change in mindset:
Accept the burden of leadership of the Ummah worldwide in all aspects of social, economic, political and personal life. This will involve a lot of soul searching and a major change in the way of thinking and ownership of collective responsibility. I believe however, that no matter how difficult this may seem to be, without a conscious decision to change our positioning, nothing can be achieved. Today the vast majority of Muslims live as minorities in multi-religious, plural societies. Our challenge is to create a model of living with non-Muslims, such that Muslims become highly respected and influential members of society in the same way as the Parsis are in India. Currently we have a shortage of both respect and influence and apparently no idea of how to get either. The Ulama need to show the way. For this the Ulama must have the humility to accept that they need to prepare themselves and go to those who can teach them about worldly matters and study under them. Our current Madrassa syllabus and curriculum is seriously out of date with the current world and its needs. It needs a major overhaul. This means that teachers will need to learn new subjects and new methods of teaching. The good news is that all this is easy to do and mostly will cost nothing at all, as it is all available free of cost. The bad news is that our own fears and egos are our most powerful enemies. But until we overcome our egos, Ulama are going to lose all relevance in society.
- Change in image:
Thoughtfully and urgently change the current image that Ulama are people who have nothing to do with this world. Become aufait with international norms, etiquette, and behavior. Network globally with other Islamic and secular universities and research bodies. Participate in teacher exchange programs with them. Network with the media and become spokespeople for the global media. Actively work to create media channels to promote Islamic interests. Become visible in the media in all social interest activity. Make our Ja’amiaat and Madaaris centers of excellence in all aspects; scholastically, socially, environmentally and in terms their facilities. Demonstrate excellence in all aspects of life and behavior in our teaching institutions which must become role models for all teaching institutions.
- Change in course curricula:
Review and reform current curricula in all Madaris and Ja’amiaat and focus on application of Islam to real life issues. Teach all branches of knowledge, both religious and modern but from an Islamic perspective. Develop course curricula, teaching methods and material, books and teacher training courses to enable teachers to teach science and technology in a way that reminds students about the Creator. The goal and challenge is to bridge the gap between theology and science and teach science in such a way that the student recognizes the signs of Allahﷻ.
The second and extremely important element is to introduce Tazkiyyatun Nafs (Purification of the Soul) and Tarbiyyatul Akhlaaq (Upbringing with good manners) into the curriculum as a serious subject. To create ways of teaching both and to demonstrate it by having teachers who are steeped in its practice. Values can’t be legislated. They must be inculcated. That is why teacher recruitment and training is the most critical element in this entire process. Any educational institution or system is only as good as its teachers.
- Change in methods of teaching:
Encourage innovation, entrepreneurship, enquiry, debate, dialogue, rigor in research, specialization in application of theory, documentation of results and publications of an international standard. Focus on languages, particularly Arabic and English. Focus on technology and all its applications for research, networking, student and teacher exchange, knowledge sharing, teaching and learning. In an age where religious information is easily available to anyone who has access to the internet, the real value addition of going to a Madrassa must be clear to the student.
- Change in focus of learning from theory to practice:
Move the current focus from preservation of knowledge to application of knowledge. We are currently like a library of automobile engineering books. But we all walk to work. We need to create the factories that can translate the knowledge in the books into cars on the street. Our focus must shift from mere memorization of Qur’an and Ahadith to their application in real life today. Our challenge is to show by actual practice, how our Islamic Way of Life is superior to every other way and makes a person a winner in both this life and the next. We must show how practicing the Islamic Way makes a person a winner in this life. We must demonstrate the superiority of the Islamic Way to non-believers and to ordinary Muslims. Like sugar which is sweet no matter who uses it, the Islamic Way must be shown to work wonders for all those who use it even if they are not Muslims.
- Measure the Quality of religious education
Currently there is no measurement of the quality of religious education. Each Jamia teaches courses with the same names but the output is very disparate. There is no comparison between the quality of students of one institution and another. In short there are no quality methods to measure the quality of education or to compare between institutions. Methods of empirical measurement based on scholastic output must be created. Teachers must be graded on the quality of their teaching.
Quality measurement parameters must be set up. A good way to understand this is to see that for instance if the passing mark in the graduation exam is 40% what would the institution itself look like if the same passing mark was applied to it. If 600 students complete Daur-e-Hadith, then if 240 become world class Muhadditheen, the institution can only be said to have ‘passed’. We are all aware of what our institutions will look like if we apply this standard today. It is precisely because we have no measurement that those who excel in our institutions are few and far between. This can never change unless we measure the quality of our education on a comparative, continuous basis. For this it is necessary to have a single consolidated examination system. We need to have a Coordinating Council for all Madrassas which among other things must create a common curriculum and conduct a common examination. This must be done at the undergraduate level after which different Darul Ulooms can become centers for tertiary specialization in different disciplines. One can be the place to go for specialization in Fiqh, another in Hadith another in Tafsir and so on. That way we would also have a healthy intermixing of students rather than the present clique-like adherence to one or other of the Darul Ulooms without any interaction with anyone else.
- Change in attitude towards money: Become financially self-sufficient:
Ulama need to rethink their attitude to money and actively work to make their institutions financially self-sufficient by the creation of endowment trusts, financial investments that yield return or other such means. The present situation of financial dependency creates a lack of respect in society and poses a serious hindrance to all developmental work that may be envisaged. Transparency of dealing, financial discipline, planning and control are all essential to establish. We need to be able to demonstrate the efficacy and superiority of Islamic Banking over other ways of banking and how it develops society instead of destroying it.
However, in over 1400 years we don’t have a single viable Islamic financial model on a global scale. This is because our focus has never been on application. Instead our own religious institutions are dependent on charity for their existence. Islam did not come to make beggars out of us. We chose to become beggars instead of becoming philanthropists to the world. That is why we have no influence in society. After all who listens to a beggar? This also makes it difficult for us to criticize those who donate to our Madaaris. In some cases, such people are engaged in banking, cigarette manufacture and other Haraam business or engage in clear Israaf in their lives, yet we can’t say anything to them for fear that they will discontinue their donations. This further harms our own image in the eyes of others.
- Change in approach to society at large:
Ulama, Ja’amiaat, Madaaris must focus on social work, especially to eradicate poverty, illiteracy, superstition and ignorance. It is essential for Ulama to be visible in all situations of natural or man-made disasters, giving aid to all people who are affected irrespective of their religion. Ulama and their students can run on-going programs at the village level focused at adult literacy, social awareness, alcohol detoxification, women’s issues, marriage counseling and other such matters. For this, courses in Applied Psychology & Counseling, Law, Public Administration, Teacher’s Training, Montessori Education, Entrepreneurship Development, Rural Development, Agriculture & Animal Husbandry and other subjects can be taught or otherwise made available to Ja’amia students. This will not only give them a way of earning a decent living but will also impact society and demonstrate the value of Muslim institutions to the world. Ulama must learn to work with their hands and not consider that to be beneath their dignity. All kinds of skill courses are available, in most countries funded by government, which Darul Uloom students must take so that by the time they graduate, they will have a marketable skill and become financially independent. Then they can teach Islam with courage and integrity without fearing or trying to please anyone other than Allahﷻ.
- Change in approach to women
It is a peculiar situation where on the one hand we talk of Islam as being the first religion that actively worked for the emancipation of women and gave women legal, political and social rights in a society where even their human identity was denied. On the other hand, our (especially Ulama’s) attitude towards women is anything but collaborative and equal. We treat women with hostile suspicion and in most Muslim societies deny them the rights that Islam has given them. Local customs, tribal practices and blatant male domination and patriarchy characterize our attitude towards women. We make no effort to involve them in any serious discourse that has to do with any religious, social or political agenda. Yet we make sanctimonious speeches of how one pious woman can change the whole family. No nation can progress or prosper that refuses to allow more than half its population to participate in nation building. It is a choice that we need to make. The situation has come where if we don’t make the choice according to Islam our women will take the choice out of our hands.
- Learning to disagree without being disagreeable
It is a sad situation that as times have changed, we seem to have lost the ability to dispute with concern. Over and over again we see instances of Ulama disputing with each other over various matters, some serious, some trivial but doing this almost invariably in ways which divide the Ummah. Ulama take stances which are hard, use language which is harsh and are unbending and unwilling to change their opinions no matter what logic is presented. At the same time, we talk about the way in which our elders and teachers used to dispute, where as a result of the dispute, their hearts came closer and their understanding of the Deen was clearer. Today therefore it is an essential skill for us to learn; to disagree without being disagreeable. To learn to dispute on matters of principle and understanding but ensure that the hearts are always kept free of all rancor. It is essential to delink one’s ego from the argument so that any situation or interpretation can be discussed and dialogued in detail and in depth so that the best possible way of understanding it comes to light and all those involved can agree on this. In cases where an agreement is not possible, when disagreement follows the rules of keeping the hearts free from hatred and personal conflict, then people can agree to disagree yet remain friends.
In the interest of keeping the Ummah together, it is essential that we follow these rules of disputing so that as a result of the dispute the Ummah does not divide even further.
- Tazkiyatun Nafs (Purification of the Soul)
It is an accepted principle in agriculture that one must prepare the ground first before any seed can be planted and be expected to germinate, grow and produce fruit. Without proper preparation of the earth the seed will either not germinate at all or be deficient in its growth. Tazkiyya is the preparation of the heart to receive the knowledge of the Revelation. Without this preparation the knowledge will fall on cold stone and leave it unmoved. The fault lies not with the knowledge but with the lack of preparation. Allahﷻ made Tazkiyya a major role of Nabuwwat (Prophethood) when He said:
A’al Imraan 3: 164. Indeed Allâh conferred a great favor on the believers when He sent among them a Messenger from among themselves, reciting unto them His Verses (the Qur’ân), and purifying them (tazkiyyatun nafs), and instructing them (in) the Book (the Qur’ân) and Al Hikmah [the wisdom and the Sunnah], while before that they had been in manifest error.
It is a regrettable fact that in the course of years we seem to have lost the importance of Tazkiyya in our teaching system. We seem to concentrate purely on the external without any focus on the internal or hidden aspect of our worship and actions. There is almost no religious institution which takes care to graduate the students with the help of a trained Shaikh through a ‘course’ on Tazkiyya. The correction of the internal aspects of oneself, Baatini Islaah, is a very important aspect of learning that Rasoolullahﷺ and all those who came after him among the great teachers of Islam paid close attention to. Allahﷻ mentioned this internal aspect of worship in the Qur’an with specific reference to Salah where He said:
Al Mu’minoon 23: 1. Successful indeed are the believers.2. Those who offer their Salât (prayers) with all solemnity and full submissiveness.
Al Ma’oon 107: 4. So woe unto those performers of Salât 5. Who delay their Salât from their stated fixed times,6. Those who do good deeds only to be seen (by others).
This has specific reference to the intention which is an internal aspect of worship that is a condition of its acceptance with Allahﷻ. A lack of sincerity can nullify the best of deeds.
This is further confirmed by the famous hadith of Niyyah narrated by Sayyidina Omar Ibn Al Khattab (RA) which is usually the first hadith in most books where he reported Rasoolullahﷺ as saying: ‘The reward of deeds is based on their intention.’ Intention is an internal matter, not visible to the outsider but something that is so important that the entire deed depends on it for its validity before Allahﷻ.
Allahﷻ said about the internal aspects of reading and listening to the Qur’an:
Zumar 39:23. Allâh has sent down the best statement, a Book (this Qur’ân), its parts resembling each other in goodness and truth, oft-repeated. The skins of those who fear their Lord shiver from it (when they recite it or hear it). Then their skin and their heart soften to the remembrance of Allâh. That is the guidance of Allâh. He Guides there-with whom He pleases and whomever Allâh sends astray, for him there is no guide.
Anfaal 8: 2. The believers are only those who, when Allâh is mentioned, feel a fear in their hearts and when His Verses (this Qur’ân) are recited unto them, they (i.e. the Verses) increase their Faith; and they put their trust in their Rabb (Alone);
I wonder how many times in our Tahfeezul Qur’an class do we ask the student to reflect on what effect the recitation is having on his heart. After all, Allahﷻ described the effect it is supposed to have, so it is only logical and natural that we should reflect and examine if our hearts are also responding in this way or not. If they aren’t then we need to question the state of our hearts and take remedial action to bring them alive. Hardness of the heart is a sickness and must be cured. That is why we need to focus on Tazkiyya before we begin any teaching. Allah said about sins:
Al An’am 6:120. Leave (O mankind, all kinds of) sin, open and secret. Verily, those who commit sin will get due recompense for that which they used to commit.
Al An’am 6:151 And do not go (even) near acts of indecency, open or secret ( al-Fawahish ma zahara minha wa ma batan ).
Allahﷻ called following one’s desires, Shirk and said:
Al Furqan 25: 43. Have you (O Muhammad SAW) seen him who has taken as his ilâh (god) his own desire? Would you then be a Wakîl (a disposer of his affairs or a watcher) over him?
Allahﷻ said that the ones who are successful are the ones who purify themselves. He said:
Faatir 35: 18 …..And he who purifies himself (from all kinds of sins), then he purifies only for the benefit of his ownself.
Al A’ala 87:14. Indeed whosoever purifies himself shall achieve success,
It is clear from these Ayaat as well as many Ahadith and the Seerah of Rasoolullahﷺ that it is essential to pay close attention to Tazkiyatun Nafs if one is to benefit from religious knowledge. In my view it is because we teach Fiqh without attention to Tazkiyya that we produce arrogance and rigidity in the heart of the student. In the current scheme of things, working on one’s own internal issues is left to the student’s own devises. This must be changed forthwith. Without purification of the soul and without a focus on the hidden aspects of worship and conduct, religious education can never be complete. Just as the Salah is not complete with paying attention to its external aspects alone but one must work on developing concentration and dedication until one reaches a level of Ihsaan as described in Hadith Jibreel (AS), narrated by Sayyidina Omar Ibn Al Khattab (RA); no other aspect of Islam will be complete with the external alone.
As time passes not only are our Ulama getting disconnected with the world but more importantly with our own Ummah. Most ordinary Muslims can’t understand, connect or be influenced by our Ulama. This is a situation that must be changed as a matter of the highest priority.
Ulama who believe that they should be leading the Ummah need to ask how Madrassa education (what we teach and how we do it) prepares them to do so. What changes are necessary? Who will make those changes? What will help and what will hinder? What are the consequences of not changing? Time for passionate speeches is over. It is time to clear the smoke and look at the stark reality. Shooting the messenger will only accelerate our own demise. Those who don’t wish to change and those who follow them, will perish together. That is the harsh reality.
What we need is to sit down and face the reality and even more difficult, face ourselves and our attitudes. Believe me, that will be truly painful. But it is like accepting the pain of the surgery to the alternative of death.