What is Ramadan?

What is Ramadan?

We are in the month of Ramadan Al Kareem. It comes with great goodness and blessings and the promise of Allahﷻ’s Forgiveness and Mercy.

Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri (RA) reported that Rasoolullah said, ‘Anyone who fasts for one day for Allah’s sake, Allah will keep his face away from the Hellfire for (a distance covered by a journey of) seventy years. (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Uthman ibn Abi Al-Aas reported that Rasoolullah said, ‘Fasting serves as a shield from Hellfire.”’(An-Nasa’i and authenticated by Al-Albani)

Abdullah ibn Amr reported that Rasoolullahﷺ said, ‘Fasting and the Qur’an will intercede on behalf of Allah’s servant on the Day of Judgment: Fasting will say, “O my Rabb! I prevented him from food and desires during the day, so accept my intercession for him. And the Qur’an will say, ‘O my Rabb! I prevented him from sleeping by night, so accept my intercession for him.’ The intercession of both will thus be accepted. (Ahmad and authenticated by Al-Albani)

Contrary to ignorantly romantic notions, fasting in Ramadan is not prescribed to teach the wealthy what it means to be poor. Poverty is about insecurity, lack of choice, lack of dignity, compulsion, fear and despair. Poverty is about living on the edge without any safety net. It is not about present hardship but of looking ahead at a life of unending and ever-increasing deprivation. Anyone who thinks that he can know what poverty is by merely bringing breakfast forward and postponing lunch with a fridge full of goodies and special foods to break your fast with, is delusional. You will never know what it is to be poor until you are poor yourself.

Ramadan is about recognizing that you are not Calvin

Ramadan is a month which Allahﷻ sends as a boot camp to reset our lifestyles to a way that leads to success in this world and the next. This is the beauty of Islam. Islam doesn’t demand renunciation of this life in order to attain success in the Hereafter. Islam shows us a way of life that guarantees us popularity, influence, love, harmony, peace and prosperity in this life and Jannah (Heaven) in the Aakhira (Hereafter). The key to that is the concept of Taqwa.

Allahﷻ said about Ramadan:

Baqara 2:183. O you who believe! Observing As-Saum (the fasting) is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become Al-Muttaqun (people of Taqwa)

What is Taqwa? Taqwa is the over-riding concern, never to displease Allahﷻ, who we love the most, over and above anyone and anything else. The love of Allahﷻ is not like the love of anyone or anything else. It is a combination of Khashiyyat (Awe) and Shukr (Thankfulness). This leads to the Hubb (Love) of Allahﷻ, which, as I said, is unlike any other emotion that we are capable of feeling. How do we develop this love? We do it by focusing on the Glory and Majesty of Allahﷻ and on His blessings.

About His Glory and Majesty, Allahﷻ described it in a way that nobody can equal or better. He said about Himself and His Glory and Majesty:

Baqara 2: 255. Allah! La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists. Neither dozing, nor sleep overtake Him. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on earth. Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His Permission? He knows what happens to them (His creatures) in this world, and what will happen to them in the Hereafter . And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills. His Kursi extends over the heavens and the earth, and He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. And He is the Most High, the Most Great.

Al Ikhlaas 112: 1. Say (O Muhammad ()): “He is Allah, (the) One. 2. “Allah-us-Samad (The Self-Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures need and He doesn’t need anything from his creatures). 3. “He begets not, nor was He begotten; 4. “And there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him.”

Hashr 59: 21.  Had We sent down this Qur’an on a mountain, you would surely have seen it humbling itself and rending asunder by the fear of Allah. Such are the parables which We put forward to mankind that they may reflect. 22. He is Allah, than Whom there is La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He) the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen (open). He is the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. 23. He is Allah than Whom there is La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He) the King, the Holy, the One Free from all defects, the Giver of security, the Watcher over His creatures, the All-Mighty, the Compeller, the Supreme. Glory be to Allah! (High is He) above all that they associate as partners with Him. 24. He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor of all things, the Bestower of forms. To Him belong the Best Names . All that is in the heavens and the earth glorify Him. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.

Allah reminded us about His blessings and said:

Ar-Rahman 55: 1. The Most Beneficent (Allah)! 2. Has taught (you mankind) the Qur’an (by His Mercy). 3. He created man. 4. He taught him eloquent speech. 5. The sun and the moon run on their fixed courses (exactly) calculated with measured out stages for each (for reckoning, etc.). 6. And the herbs (or stars) and the trees both prostrate. 7. And the heaven He has raised high, and He has set up the Balance. 8. In order that you may not transgress (due) balance. 9. And observe the weight with equity and do not make the balance deficient. 10. And the earth He has put for the creatures.  11. Therein are fruits, date-palms producing sheathed fruit-stalks (enclosing dates). 12. And also corn, with (its) leaves and stalk for fodder, and sweet-scented plants. 13. Then which of the Blessings of your Rabb will you both (jinn and men) deny?14. He created man (Adam) from sounding clay like the clay of pottery.15. And the jinn did He create from a smokeless flame of fire. 16. Then which of the Blessings of your Rabb will you both (jinn and men) deny? 17. (He is) the Rabb of the two easts (places of sunrise during early summer and early winter) and the Rabb of the two wests (places of sunset during early summer and early winter). 18. Then which of the Blessings of your Rabb will you both (jinn and men) deny? 19. He has let loose the two seas (the salt water and the sweet) meeting together. 20. Between them is a barrier which neither of them can transgress. 21. Then which of the Blessings of your Rabb will you both (jinn and men) deny? 22. Out of them both come out pearl and coral. 23. Then which of the Blessings of your Rabb will you both (jinn and men) deny? 24. And His are the ships going and coming in the seas, like mountains. 25. Then which of the Blessings of your Rabb will you both (jinn and men) deny? 26. Whatsoever is on it (the earth) will perish. 27. And the Face of your Rabb full of Majesty and Honour will abide forever. 28. Then which of the Blessings of your Rabb will you both (jinn and men) deny?

Naba 78: 6. Have We not made the earth as a bed, 7. And the mountains as pegs? 8. And We have created you in pairs 9. And have made your sleep as a thing for rest. 10. And have made the night as a covering (through its darkness), 11. And have made the day for livelihood. 12. And We have built above you seven strong (heavens), 13. And have made (therein) a shining lamp (sun). 14. And have sent down from the rainy clouds abundant water. 15. That We may produce therewith corn and vegetation, 16. And gardens of thick growth. 17. Verily, the Day of Decision is a fixed time, 18. The Day when the Trumpet will be blown, and you shall come forth in crowds (groups); 19.And the heaven shall be opened, and it will become as gates, 20. And the mountains shall be moved away from their places and they will be as if they were a mirage.

When we reflect; that is the key – reflection; on the Glory and Majesty of Allahﷻ and all that He blessed us with, we begin to love Him. The more we reflect, the more we love Him. The more we love Him, the more concerned we become about never disobeying or displeasing Him. That is Taqwa and that is why Allahﷻ sent Ramadan.

But how is Ramadan a boot camp?

Obedience is about boundaries. It is about doing what we are told to do without question. Without question not because the obedience is blind but because we recognize and know the One who is ordering us. We obey because we know two things very clearly: 1. That Allahﷻ loves us, wants the best for us and knows what that is better than we do. 2. That what He ordered us to do is for our benefit, because nothing can benefit or harm him. This is basic logic. If Allahﷻ doesn’t know and if we know more than He does, then why are we worshiping Him? In Islam we have settled these basic questions and know that our Creator and Sustainer wants the best for us, knows what that is and has told us to do what is good for us and to refrain from what is bad for us and that to Him, is our return.

Ramadan comes to remind us about obedience by making what is normally permissible, prohibited during a specific time, from dawn to dusk. Why is something that is normally permissible, meaning that it is beneficial for us, prohibited during this time in Ramadan? To teach us a lesson that all permissibility and prohibition is for our benefit and is from Allahﷻ. Ramadan is not only about not eating or drinking. It is about abstaining from all negativity and negative behavior. It is about abstaining from backbiting, slander, lying, cheating, cursing and foul language, anger and arrogance. It is not only about not initiating but of not even responding in a negative way if someone abuses us. Rasoolullahﷺ told us to say, “I am fasting,” to someone who yells at us but not to respond in kind. Rasoolullahﷺ said, “If you can’t control your tongues and behavior, then Allahﷻ is not in need of your hunger and thirst.”

 Abu Hurairah (RA) reported that Rasoolullah said, ‘Fasting is a shield; so, when one of you is fasting, he should neither indulge in obscene language nor should he raise his voice in anger. If someone attacks him or insults him, let him say: “I am fasting!” (Muslim) 

Ramadan is about experimenting with total behavioral change. With making a new lifestyle choice. To choose to live a life of obedience and spread goodness around us. When we are ready to stop ourselves from doing what we normally do and enjoy, only because Allahﷻ ordered us to do so, then how much more important is it to stop ourselves from what Allahﷻ prohibited for us throughout our lives? This is the essence of Taqwa which Ramadan comes to teach us in a powerful experiential way.

That is why we need to ask if Ramadan entered us or if we entered Ramadan. If we entered Ramadan, we will exit it on the 30th of Ramadan. If Ramadan entered us, then it will remain in our hearts and lives, throughout the year. The spirit of obedience, which is Ramadan, is the key to success in this life and the next. That is what must enter our hearts. To obey joyfully and eagerly because we love Allahﷻ. That is Taqwa.

When the slave gets close to His Rabb, it is only natural that he asks about Him and wants to feel connected to Him. See the Mercy of Allahﷻ. He said, in the middle of the Ayaat related to fasting:

وَإِذَا سَأَلَكَ عِبَادِي عَنِّي فَإِنِّي قَرِيبٌ أُجِيبُ دَعْوَةَ الدَّاعِ إِذَا دَعَانِ فَلْيَسْتَجِيبُواْ لِي وَلْيُؤْمِنُواْ بِي لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْشُدُونَ

Baqara 2:186. And when My slaves ask you (O Muhammad) concerning Me, then (answer them), I am indeed near (to them by My Knowledge). I respond to the dua of the supplicant when he calls on Me. So, let them obey Me and believe in Me, so that they may be rightly guided.

Ramadan is a month of dua. Of asking Allahﷻ, of telling Him your story. He knows it but you still tell Him because that is the essence of Uboodiyat. Learn to make dua.

Create your own style of asking Allahﷻ. He didn’t put any conditions on making dua. We can ask Allahﷻ in any language, in any state, in any condition, anywhere and anyhow. It makes perfect sense not to have any conditions about making dua because the slave asks when he is in dire need. And so he/she must be free to ask in any way and from anywhere. So, ask Allahﷻ. Remember however that Allahﷻ said, “So, let him obey me and have faith in me.” Obedience starts with making a choice to change our ways. To repent our transgressions, knowing that Allahﷻ promised to forgive every transgression, every sin of anyone who comes to Him with sincere repentance. He said:

قُلْ يَا عِبَادِيَ الَّذِينَ أَسْرَفُوا عَلَى أَنفُسِهِمْ لَا تَقْنَطُوا مِن رَّحْمَةِ اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ جَمِيعًا إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ

Zumar 39:53.  Say: “O ‘Ibadi (My slaves) who have transgressed against themselves (by committing evil deeds and sins)! Despair not of the Mercy of Allah, verily Allah forgives all sins. Truly, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Tell me, who but my Rabb, Allahﷻ has the Mercy to call those who have disobeyed and angered Him all their lives, “My slaves”? And then He says, “Despair not of the Mercy of Allahﷻ.” He promises to forgive them and says, “Verily Allahﷻ forgives all sins.” And then he reassures us and says, “Truly He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” At each stage of this Ayah, one could say that the meaning is complete. But then my Rabb in His Infinite Mercy goes beyond what we can imagine and forgives us.

Remember however, that forgiveness of Allahﷻ is dependent on forgiveness of those you wronged, when it comes to transgressions against people. If you wronged someone in any way, seek their forgiveness in this life and compensate them and don’t carry that sin with you when you meet Allahﷻ. Rasoolullahﷺ said, “Allahﷻ will not forgive the slave until the one he wronged has forgiven him.” Remember that Rasoolullahﷺ didn’t distinguish between the Muslim and non-Muslim when it comes to oppression of others. A Muslim is prohibited from oppression or wronging anyone. Muslim or non-Muslim, human or animal, animate or inanimate. Muslims are supposed to spread only goodness around themselves.

And if they don’t, they are answerable to the Highest Authority from whom nothing is hidden and whose justice nobody can escape. That is why Allahﷻ called the taking of a single life equal to the annihilation of all humanity and the saving of one life equal to the saving of all humanity. He said:

مِنْ أَجْلِ ذَلِكَ كَتَبْنَا عَلَى بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ أَنَّهُ مَن قَتَلَ نَفْسًا بِغَيْرِ نَفْسٍ أَوْ فَسَادٍ فِي الأَرْضِ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَتَلَ النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا وَمَنْ أَحْيَاهَا فَكَأَنَّمَا أَحْيَا النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا

Maida 5:32. Because of that We ordained for the Children of Israel that if anyone killed a person not in retaliation of murder, or (and) to spread mischief in the land – it would be as if he killed all mankind, and if anyone saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of all mankind….

Finally, the crowning glory of Ramadan is Laylatul Qadr – the Night of Decree. The worship in which is better than continuous worship for one thousand months. Not equal to continuous worship for one thousand months, but better than that. How much better? In keeping with the Glory and Majesty of the One who said it is better. He said:

Al-Qadr 97:1. Verily! We have sent it (this Qur’an) down in the night of Al-Qadr (Decree) 2. And what will make you know what the night of Al-Qadr (Decree) is? 3. The night of Al-Qadr (Decree) is better than a thousand months (i.e. worshipping Allah in that night is better than worshipping Him a thousand months, i.e. 83 years and 4 months). 4. Therein descend the angels and the Ruh [Jibreel (Gabriel)] by Allah’s Permission with all Decrees, 5.Peace! (All that night, there is Peace and Goodness from Allah) until the appearance of dawn.

May Allahﷻ bless our mother, Ayesha Siddiqua (RA) who asked Rasoolullahﷺ what dua she should make if she were to find Laylatul Qadr.

‘Aishah (RA) reported: I asked: “Ya Rasoolullah! If I get Lailat-ul-Qadr (Night of Decree), what dua should I make in it?” He () replied, “You should make this dua: Allahumma innaka ‘afuwwun, tuhibbul-‘afwa, fa’fu ‘anni (O Allah, You are Most Forgiving, and You love forgiveness; so forgive me).” [At-Tirmidhi, Book of Virtues].

I remind myself and you that all goodness comes from making thoughtful choices. Ramadan comes to enable us to do that. To recognize the Glory and Magnificence of Allahﷻ, to seek comfort and courage in His Mercy and Forgiveness and to remember that one day we will meet Him and answer to Him. On that Day nothing will be with anyone and nothing can help anyone except their deeds. Ramadan comes to enable us to repent, rethink, reset and reboot our lives to make them obedient to Allahﷻ, which means to live according to the Sunnah (Way) of Rasoolullahﷺ. Study his life and live like he did and die as he did. That is what Ramadan comes for. Let us remember that and use Ramadan to start a new positive, powerful, meaningful and fulfilling phase of our lives. I ask Allahﷻ for His help and Mercy.

Tajdeed-ul-Ummah bi Tajdeed-ul-Ulama

Text of speech delivered at the AGM of the Jamiat ul Ulama, South Africa in 2006

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

Indeed, all praises are due to Allahﷻ, we praise Him, we seek His help, we ask for His forgiveness, and we rely solely on Him. We seek His refuge from the evil in our souls and from our wicked deeds. Whoever Allahﷻ guides, no one can misguide. And whomever Allahﷻ allows to be misguided (leaves alone to follow his own desires), no one can guide. I bear witness that there is no one worthy of worship except Allahﷻ, He is One, with no partners, and I testify that Muhammadﷺ is His Messenger and His slave.

Rasoolullahﷺ said: “The best speech is the Book of Allahﷻ and the best guidance and example is that of Muhammadﷺ. And the worst of all things are the newly invented things (in religion), for every innovation is error and misguidance.” [Reported by Muslim] and in another narration, “every newly invented matter (in religion) is a bid’ah and every bida’a is a misguidance and every misguidance is in the (hell) Fire.” [Reported by At-Tirmithi].

I want to begin by quoting from one of the greatest of our Ulama in India, Allama Syed Sulaiman Nadwi (RA) who said: “The thing that has spread ignorance and misguided the most is the differentiation between Dunya and Deen. The work of Deen was declared to be different from the work of Dunya. The orders of Allah were separated from the orders of Caesar (world, government). The way to succeed in Deen was stated to be different from the way to succeed in Deen. Students of Islam, this was the biggest mistake that was made but its veil was torn apart by the light of the message of Muhammad. It (the message of Islam) showed that to do the work of the Dunya with good intention and sincerity according to the way permitted by Allah is Deen. That means that living in the Dunya doing its work, but according to the orders of Allah is the essence of religion (Deendari). People think that to sit in seclusion in a cave on a hilltop, engaged exclusively in Dhikr and worship, living a life of self-selected poverty away from people, is Deendari (piety). And to spend time with your friends, family, parents, children, to help them in worldly matters or to help yourself, is Dunyadari (worldliness). Islam wiped out this false belief and clarified that to fulfill your worldly responsibilities, earn your living and participate in the affairs of the world according to the orders of Allah is in fact Deendari (piety).” Syed Sulaiman Nadwi.

I am here to invoke the right that Allahﷻ has given me, as a follower of Islam, to go to the Ulama and ask them to lead me on the path of righteousness. This is my right upon you. And I ask you with humbleness, to give me my right.

I have heard from all the Ulama that I have listened to and read, that Islam is a complete way of life and not merely a way of worship. There is guidance in Islam for every aspect of life that an individual leads, irrespective of the boundaries of time and space. I have also heard that this Islamic way of life is good for all time, until the Hour is established. About you, the Prophetﷺ said (approximate meaning of the hadith): “The Ulama are the inheritors of the Anbiya (Messengers). The Anbiya don’t bequeath dinars and dirhams. They bequeath knowledge. So, whoever acquires knowledge is indeed fortunate.”

What is unstated in this hadith but is its soul is what the Ulama are supposed to do with the knowledge that they have. The Anbiya showed people the way and taught people what they knew. They did not simply collect the knowledge from Allahﷻ and keep it to themselves. They did not merely become storehouses of knowledge but established markets of the knowledge where it could be learnt and benefited from. That was the duty of the Anbiya, to spread the word without fear of anyone. And Allahﷻ promised to protect them as long as they carried out this duty.

Al Ma’aidah:67    O Messenger, proclaim the (message of Islam) which has been sent to you from your Rabb. If you did not do this, you would not have fulfilled and proclaimed His mission. And Allah will defend you from the people (who mean mischief). For Allah guides not those who reject Faith.

About the mission of Rasoolullahﷺ  Allahﷻ said:

 Al Ahzab: 21           You have indeed in the Messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of life) for any one whose hope is in Allah and the Final Day, and who engages much in the Praise of Allah.

There are two critical points in this ayah:

  1. That the life of Rasoolullahﷺ  is the best example of the Islamic Way of Life.
  2. That Islam is a Way of Life and not merely a way of worship but the way to lead one’s entire life in all its aspects.

It is essential to keep this perspective in mind as you read the rest of this document.

Historical Perspective – Europe and Christianity

In medieval Europe a combination of the pressure of kings to act at will and the self-serving politics of the Church resulted in a formal division between the Christian Church and the State. What added to this, especially when scientific education became popular (ironically as a result of the contribution of Muslim scientists) was the alienation of the common people from Biblical knowledge because the Bible had been changed by its guardians and no longer made sense to a scientific mind. They found that what their religion said was so divorced from the reality that they had only two choices left to them. Either to discard all religion (which is what Darwinism, Marxism and the various atheistic theories did) or to hold religion as something ceremonial to respect but not as something that can actually be used in real life. Most people made the second choice. So, they went to Church on Sundays and listened to sermons but during the week they continued to live their lives in accordance with their own personal desires. They found nothing contradictory or ridiculous to sit in the same pew with their live-in boy or girl friend and listening to a sermon about faithfulness in marriage and against extra-marital sex.

The State allowed the Church to operate freely in the area of theology, narrowly defined as the study of the Bible, rituals of worship (baptism, marriage and funerals etc.) and preaching. All these were acknowledged as the responsibility of the priests and the State and common people would not ‘interfere’ in them except to provide funding at their will. Priests were given the right to raise funds for their work (building churches, running Sunday schools, seminaries and monasteries, publishing religious literature and missionary work of preaching). All considered to be ‘good work’ which it was the role of the church and priests to do. So also, it was their role to be pure and celibate (extreme form of ‘purity’) and for the women among them to be modest and covered from head to toe (nuns) and to be engaged with only charity and such matters and leave the world and worldly matters alone.

The unspoken condition was that the Church and its priests refrained from ‘interfering’ (criticizing, correcting) in the lives of the kings and common people. If the Church toed this line, it got State sponsorship. When it refused (as in the case of Henry VIII – who founded the Anglican Church as a breakaway from Catholicism in the 16th century. The Church of England broke with Rome, largely because Pope Clement VII refused to grant Henry an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon), people simply went ahead and either found some ‘cooperative’ priests who were willing to legitimize their wrong doing. Or they went ahead and did what they wanted to anyway. This only served to enhance the divide between the Church and the common people and gradually the role of the Church was reduced merely to the symbolic.

Historical Perspective – The Muslim World

 Interestingly the same kind of division happened in the Muslim world. Some reasons were the same; i.e. the recalcitrant attitude of kings and common people about following the precepts of the faith in areas where these conflicted with their own desires. Ulama who disagreed with Muslim kings and Khulafa were brutally persecuted, even murdered. Ulama who were cooperative and allowed things which they had no right to allow, simply to please their masters, were praised, supported and enriched. Common people went fatwa shopping and praised those Ulama who legitimized their wrong doing or at least did not openly criticize it. This unfortunate trend continues to this day.

In the face of severe persecution, Ulama retreated from the limelight and took refuge in their Khankhas and restricted themselves to protecting and teaching the scriptures. They deliberately stayed away from matters of a worldly nature and perhaps unconsciously or in times of intense persecution even consciously, agreed to separate their activity from the real world and retreated into their Madaaris and Khankhas. They confined themselves to the study and teaching of the Qur’an and Hadith, rituals of worship and its related aspects (births, marriages and deaths) and some specific issues of fiqh. They became and created super specialists in the religious texts with no attempt to look at their application to fast changing external realities of society. And they also unconsciously and without that intent, started preparing ‘priests’; students whose role was seen as being confined to Imaamat in masajid and teaching in Madaaris. Interestingly, they even called the Darul Uloom or Ja’amia Islamia, a ‘Seminary’ and its Nazim or Muhtamim, ‘The Rector’. It is interesting to note that no attempt was made at least to be distinct from Christian Religious institutions in nomenclature.

All scientific and current knowledge was shunned and considered as being beneath the dignity of Ulama to study. Therefore, Ulama and students became less and less knowledgeable about science and technology, economics and politics and appeared as being ‘ignorant’ in society. Since they did not (and still don’t) understand science, technology and current knowledge, most of them have no idea how to use it to benefit Islam or Muslims. Or to ‘translate’ theology to help ordinary Muslims understand its relevance to their lives today. The same attitude was applied to all worldly subjects and so gradually the leadership of the world passed from the hands of the Ulama into the hands of others.

Until the 19th century students went to an A’alim to learn a particular branch of theology. When they finished there, they went to someone else to learn another branch. When formal Madaris were established (in the 20th century), they simply brought several Ulama, each an expert in his branch of theology, together in one place. The curriculum simply followed the earlier method of learning where each a’alim taught in his expert area with no reference to what another a’alim would teach the students in the next period.

For example, if students of a class are doing the tafseer of the ayaat of Sura Al Baqara relating to interest-based financing and the writing of contracts in their Qur’anic Tafsir class, they do not necessarily study the Kitaab ul Buyoo’ in their Hadith class. Nor do they study the (Principles) Matha’il of Fiqh to do with business, contractual dealings, financing and its current forms in the world. Therefore, to connect one branch of theological knowledge with another and then to interpret it in the context of current social realities is something that is simply left to the student’s ability with predictable results. Not surprisingly this has created a disconnect for ordinary Muslims between what Islam teaches and the questions they face in their daily lives.

Ignorance as always breeds fear and so also in this case where there is a universal phobia (though not always acknowledged) among the Ulama about science and technology. Ulama forgot that the Qur’an itself encourages the person to research in the creation and recognize the signs (Ayaat) of Allahﷻ. The Qur’an teaches the way in which this is to be done; the sequence of guidance without which one sees the signs of the Creator yet fails to recognize Him in those signs. It was the responsibility of the Ulama and to show the world the right way to research scientific knowledge, but they did not shoulder this responsibility. Instead they discarded scientific knowledge and called it a source of misguidance, without recognizing that the danger lay in the method of teaching by the secularists, not in the knowledge itself. This increased the alienation even more.

The liberal atmosphere in universities became another cause to criticize and fear them and so Muslim students were discouraged from going to university. Strangely there was no attempt to go to university and change the atmosphere to one that is more oriented towards learning. There was a strange lack of confidence in our own theology and our ability to persuade or influence anyone about the Islamic way of life. That is why there was the unspoken fear that if our students went to university they would get ‘corrupted’ while the fact that they could conceivably have influenced others, was neither acknowledged or even considered possible. Sadly, this attitude exists even today in many quarters.

The Qur’an on the other hand encourages scientific research and education and also teaches the way in which this must be done. It teaches the sequence that must be followed in order that scientific education becomes a source of guidance and strengthening of Imaan. It draws attention to the fact that if this sequence is not followed, then there is danger of the student going astray.

Allahﷻ describes those people who He calls People of Understanding (Ulul Albab). It is important to understand this description and see if we fit it or not as we consider ourselves to be intelligent.

A’al Imraan:190-91        Behold! In the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of night and day there are indeed Signs for People of Understanding. They are those who celebrate the praises of Allah standing sitting and lying down on their sides and contemplate the (wonders of) creation in the heavens and the earth (with the thought): Our Rabb! Not for nothing have you created (all) this! Glory to You! Give us salvation from the penalty of the fire.

Please notice that Allahﷻ uses the term WA and not AU when he connects His Dhikr with scientific research وَيَتَفَكَّرُونَ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ. Teaching theology and scientific knowledge are not antagonistic or mutually exclusive in Islam, but one leads to the other and strengthens the other. The Qur’an teaches the methodology to do this so that the student sees the signs of Allahﷻ in the world by means of this knowledge. But somewhere we lost this connection and lost our position as leaders in science and technology. We lost this because we did not follow the Qur’an. Not because we lost the scientists in wars. If the sequence that the Qur’an teaches is followed, then mankind has no alternative but to recognize Allahﷻ in His creation and to exclaim in wonder and amazement at the Majesty of the Creator;

 “O Our Rabb! Not for nothing have you created this. Glory to You. Give us salvation from the penalty of the fire.”

On the other hand, when science is taught from an atheistic or secular perspective, as if there is no Creator, then it perpetuates this lie. Students get confused. Their basic questions can’t be answered. They confuse the “Why” with the “How”. They fail to learn the purpose behind the created thing and remain engrossed in its nature. This can lead to an irreligious attitude and an alienation from Islam and the message of Allahﷻ. Unfortunately, our Ulama due to their own ignorance of science and technology looked at these branches of knowledge with suspicion and did not even think of becoming its teachers in the Qur’anic way. Secularists on the other hand taught science from an atheistic perspective and the division between the average Muslim and Ulama widened.

 Strategy for the future

 There is much that needs to be done and many changes that need to be made if the Ulama are to take the leadership role in the Ummah and the world. In my view there are three major steps that need to be taken. The implementation strategy for each can be worked out in detail.

  1.  Accepting the mantle of leadership for the Ummah and the World

This is the first requirement in my view from which everything else will flow. Unless Ulama accept that it is indeed their responsibility to lead the world in every sense of the term, no change can take place in the current situation where they merely seem to consider it their duty to preserve and teach theology alone. If Islam is indeed a way of life (Nizaam-e-hayaat) and not a system of belief (Nazariya) alone, then it is essential that we learn to talk about the whole of life in all its aspects, social, political, economic and personal. The religious aspect permeates all of these and is not something to be spoken of or dealt with in isolation as happens today. We accept this in principle and in word, but we do nothing about implementing this in our teaching.

      2.  Becoming and creating Standard Bearers (Alam bardaar) of Islam

The gap between the Ulama and the ordinary Muslim is very wide and widening. The gap between the A’alim of Islam and the non-Muslim is beyond description. If the Ulama are to be the leaders of the Ummah and of the world, then this gap must be bridged. It is the responsibility of those who aspire to leadership to create followership. In order to do this, it is not enough, even useless and harmful, to simply sermonize and “talk at” people. It is essential to become and create Standard Bearers of Islam. People who are living, walking, talking, working and visible examples of the excellence of the Islamic Way of Life.

The ayah I quoted about the life of the Messenger of Allahﷻ is a clear proof that this was the intention of Allahﷻ in sending our beloved Prophetﷺ, to demonstrate to the world, what it means to live like a Muslim. He came to SHOW Islam, not merely to TALK ABOUT Islam. So, if we truly want to follow the Sunnah of Rasoolullahﷺ it is essential to translate Islamic theory into practice and give people tools to apply in their lives which will lead to success in this life itself. This is the promise of Allahﷻ, for those who practice the Islamic Way of Life, success both in this world as well as in the next. It is success in this world that is visible and when people see the benefit of Applied Islam, they will not need anyone to exhort them to practice it. It is not enough to merely teach one branch of Islam alone, in isolation.

Social change is not brought about using force. It is created by those who believe in it, practicing it with passion and dedication in a way that demonstrates its superiority over other ways. As in the case of the Montessori teaching methodology or even something as mundane as western clothing (trousers and shirt) people saw those who used them, liked what they saw and adopted it without any compulsion from the original users. So also, in the case of the English language, others were influenced by the native speakers of English who refused to speak in any other language and more and more people started using English in their work, wrote in it, spoke it and today it is a universal language. The same thing is happening rapidly today with respect to Western (especially American) culture. It is changing our values, traditions, customs and ways of relating. All this without any overt force from America. The American way is spreading all over the world simply by Americans practicing those ways themselves, publicly, with confidence and without apology. So even though some of the ways are detrimental to society, they are adopted by the ignorant because they are momentarily pleasant to some.

Let us remember that these influences happen because the originators of all these ways refuse to use any other way and insisted on using their own. They did not compel anyone else. They merely used their own ways themselves. Simply seeing them influenced others to change their own age-old customs, practices and their own ways got relegated to ceremonial purposes. That is why Indian dress is worn only on ceremonial occasions while Western dress is worn all through the year. This is just one example. There are many others. The key is to practice Islam confidently and to become its Standard Bearers of Islam in all aspects of our lives.

Let us remember that Muslims know the Why of obedience to Allahﷻ. We need to teach them the How. The reason Islam is not practiced is a tools issue, not an ideology issue. For example, it is not enough to talk about the fact that Abdur Rahman Ibn Awf (RA) who migrated without any resources, started with no capital at his disposal, yet he became the richest man in Madinah in a period of less than 10 years using Halaal means of business. It is necessary to teach people the business model of Abdur Rahman Ibn Awf (RA) so that they can go forward and also become millionaires using Halaal Islamic business methods. If we can’t do this, then telling the story of Abdur Rahman Ibn Awf (RA) is of no practical benefit.

But instead of following the Sunnah of Rasoolullahﷺ who taught the trader how to trade, when we preach without demonstrating or practicing, it creates a credibility gap and leads people to believe that the Deen is merely a way of worship and has no practical use in this life. It is for this reason that Sayyidina Omar Ibn Al Khattab (RA) said that a trader has no right to trade unless he first learns the fiqh of trade. I ask our Ulama, if we are teaching business management classes in our Madaris and Ja’amiaat. If not, then I ask them to let me know, where the Muslim businessman should go to learn the way the Sahaba of Rasoolullahﷺ did business. The same thing is true of all other aspects of life. Be it teaching and learning, psychology and counseling, law and justice, science and technology, medicine and engineering or anything else. We need to teach people how to demonstrate the Islamic Way of Life in what they do in the world. We need to create Standard Bearers of Islam who will Show the way. To which Darul Uloom or Ja’amia can a person go, to learn the complete Islamic Way of Life – Nizaam-e-hayaat?

Humbly and with respect, I submit that it is the challenge of the Ulama to teach Islam in a way where it is truly seen as the best way of life in all aspects of life. This is what is needed to bridge the gap between the Ulama and the Awwam-un-Naas that currently exists. Our Ja’amiat and Madaris must teach science and technology, business and political science. But they must teach it differently from the way it is taught in secular schools. They must teach it in the Qur’anic way and relate what they teach to the Islamic Way. They must help the students to recognize their Creator through seeing His signs in the world around them. That is the true meaning of Da’awa of Islam. It is essential for Ulama to also create active and vibrant fora for interaction and Mashwara between themselves and intellectuals, professionals, technologists, scientists, educators, politicians and administrators, men and women, from among the Muslims. These fora can be formed on a national basis with local chapters which meet periodically and deliberate on current issues that affect the Muslims in the country and the world.

These fora can also be utilized to influence public opinion and to evolve a concerted strategy for united action. Finally, and most importantly these will be a wonderful way to create a mindshare between the Ulama and leaders of Muslim society and a very powerful way of bringing about much needed social change in the Muslim Ummah.

    3.   Become proactive activists for the truth in the socio-political arena

The true face of Islam was seen when the A’alim was also the Khalifa. During the rule of Rasoolullahﷺ, his Khulafa-ar-Raashida, Omar bin Abdul Aziz (R) and other righteous scholar-rulers, Islam shone forth in its true glory as the Right way of leading life. As Allahﷻ said:

Al An’aam: 165     It is He who has made you (His) agents (Khulafa’a) inheritors of the earth: He has raised you in ranks some above others: that he may try you in the gifts that He has given you: for your Rabb is quick in punishment: yet He is indeed Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful.

Let us remember that there is no gift that is more valuable than the gift of Ilm and it is a gift that we will be held accountable for on the Day of Judgment. Let us remember that Khilafat and Wiraasat of the Anbiya come with a responsibility. That is the reason I submit that it is not acceptable for Ulama to seek the comfort, safety and seclusion of their Madaaris and Khankhas while the world is reeling around as if in a drunken state. I submit with all respect that it is the responsibility of those who know the way, to show it to those who don’t know it, even if the ignorant ones don’t have the sense to ask. It is the responsibility of those who know the way to find different ways of gaining the trust of those they seek to lead and then lead them on the right path.

In order to do this, Ulama must address issues on a global plane. The current situation where there is no meaningful collaboration even between Islamic universities and Ja’amiaat around the world is a deplorable thing. Our problem as Ulama and as the Ummah is not that we are not united. It is that we have no strategy for unity, for influencing or for anything else. We urgently and desperately need to think collectively and on a global plane.

The British parliament for example has a Shadow Cabinet where the Opposition Party deliberates on all issues that the Ruling Party is working on and creates shadow legislation in the light of their own ideology. The intention is that if they come to power, they will be ready to rule from the first day. As Muslims, where is our Shadow Cabinet? What is our strategy to govern our affairs according to the Law of the Lawgiver? The same situation prevails about issues of Muslims in different countries. I submit that there is a critical need to set up a Think Tank consisting of Ulama and experts who can think of various issues and suggest proactive steps to deal with them. Our current slowness even in reacting to emerging issues is very detrimental and harmful to us. We not only need to improve our speed of response, but we need to be able to anticipate and act before issues become critical.

Strategies for Change: Some suggestions for the consideration of Ulama

In my view the single most critical thing that distinguishes Islam from all other religions and ideologies is its focus and emphasis on knowledge. The only thing that Allahﷻ taught His Messengerﷺ to ask for increase in, is knowledge. It is for this reason that the scholars of Islam have a very special place in Muslim society. For various historical reasons, this place has been lost for many decades. The time has come however where it is essential for Ulama all over the world to realize their real responsibility and arise to take up the mantle of leadership once again.

This paper is respectfully submitted for consideration and lists the changes that I believe are necessary to make if the Ulama of Islam are once again to get the prominence and influence that they had in early Islamic history.

1.  Change in mindset:

Accept the burden of leadership of the Ummah worldwide in all aspects of social, economic, political and personal life. This will involve a lot of soul searching and a major change in the way of thinking and ownership of collective responsibility. I believe however, that no matter how difficult this may seem to be, without a conscious decision to change our positioning, nothing can be achieved. Today the vast majority of Muslims live as minorities in multi-religious, plural societies. Our challenge is to create a model of living with non-Muslims, such that Muslims become highly respected and influential members of society in the same way as the Parsis are in India. Currently we have a shortage of both respect and influence and apparently no idea of how to get either. The Ulama need to show the way. For this the Ulama must have the humility to accept that they need to prepare themselves and go to those who can teach them about worldly matters and study under them. Our current Madrassa syllabus and curriculum is seriously out of date with the current world and its needs. It needs a major overhaul. This means that teachers will need to learn new subjects and new methods of teaching. The good news is that all this is easy to do and mostly will cost nothing at all, as it is all available free of cost. The bad news is that our own fears and egos are our most powerful enemies. But until we overcome our egos, Ulama are going to lose all relevance in society.

2.  Change in image:

Thoughtfully and aggressively change the current image that Ulama are people who have nothing to do with this world. Become aufait with international norms, etiquette, and behavior. Network globally with other Islamic and secular universities and research bodies. Participate in teacher exchange programs with them. Network with the media and become spokespeople for the global media. Actively work to create media channels to promote Islamic interests. Become visible in the media in all social interest activity. Make our Ja’amiaat and Madaaris centers of excellence in all aspects; scholastically, socially, environmentally and in terms their facilities. Demonstrate excellence in all aspects of life and behavior in our teaching institutions which must become role models for all teaching institutions. (Case in point: Bombay Dabbawalas are a global 6 Sigma Quality case study without computers, managers or offices.)

3.  Correcting the Aqa’id of Muslims:

No good can come to a people who are steeped in bida’at and shirk. So, the first action step will be to establish Tawheed in all aspects of life and to eradicate all shirk and bida’at from the life of the Muslims. Muslims must be brought back to the Qur’an and Sunnah and a clear strong message must be sent out against all that goes contrary to this. Ulama need to stand up against what is wrong and unislamic in all aspects of social and family life, especially in customs relating to marriages, birth and death ceremonies and other customs that have crept into Muslim society. They must speak out against Israaf and ostentatious spending and work towards the disbursement of wealth through Zakat and Sadaquat to the poor. Ulama must walk the talk. Not speak against Israaf in weddings and then accept invitations to ostentatious weddings and attend them because those conducting the wedding are key donors. Unless Ulama disconnect their incomes from Islam, they will never have the courage to speak the truth. Islam is not a business. Create your own income source and do the work of Allahﷻ for the sake of His Pleasure alone.

 4.   Change in course curricula:

Review and reform current curricula in all Madaris and Ja’amiaat and focus on application of Islam to real life issues. Teach all branches of knowledge, both religious and modern but from an Islamic perspective. Develop course curricula, teaching methods and material, books and teacher training courses to enable teachers to teach science and technology in a way that reminds students about the Creator. The goal and challenge is to bridge the gap between theology and science and teach science in such a way that the student recognizes the signs of Allahﷻ.

The second and extremely important element is to introduce Tazkiyya and Tarbiyya into the curriculum as a serious subject. To create ways of teaching both and to demonstrate it by having teachers who are steeped in its practice. Values can’t be legislated. They must be inculcated. That is why teacher recruitment and training is the most critical element in this entire process. Any educational institution or system is only as good as its teachers.

5.  Change in methods of teaching:

Encourage innovation, entrepreneurship, enquiry, debate, dialogue, rigor in research, specialization in application of theory, documentation of results and publications of an international standard. Focus on languages, particularly Arabic and English. Focus on technology and all its applications for research, networking, student and teacher exchange, knowledge sharing, teaching and learning. In an age where religious information is easily available to anyone who has access to the internet, the real value addition of going to a Madrassa must be clear to the student.

6.  Change in focus of learning from theory to practice:

Move the current focus from preservation of knowledge to application of knowledge. We are currently like a library of automobile engineering books. But we all walk to work. We need to create the factories that can translate the knowledge in the books into cars on the street. Our focus must shift from mere memorization of Qur’an and Ahadith to their application in real life today. Our challenge is to show by actual practice, how our Islamic Way of Life is superior to every other way and makes a person a winner in both this life and the next. We must show how practicing the Islamic Way is actually superior in this life. We must demonstrate the superiority of the Islamic Way to non-believers and to ordinary Muslims. Like sugar which is sweet no matter who uses it, the Islamic Way must be shown to work wonders for all those who use it even if they are not Muslims.

 7.  Measure the Quality of religious education

Currently there is no measurement of the quality of religious education. Each Jamia teaches courses with the same names but the output is very disparate. There is no comparison between the quality of students of one institution and another. In short there are no quality methods to measure the quality of education or to compare between institutions. Methods of empirical measurement based on scholastic output must be created. Teachers must be graded on the quality of their teaching.

Quality measurement parameters must be set up. A good way to understand this is to see that for instance if the passing mark in the graduation exam is 40% what would the institution itself look like if the same passing mark was applied to it. If 600 students complete Daur-e-Hadith, then if 240 become world class Muhadditheen, the institution can only be said to have ‘passed’. We are all aware of what our institutions will look like if we apply this standard today. It is precisely because we have no measurement that those who excel in our institutions are few and far between. This can never change unless we measure the quality of our education on a comparative, continuous basis. For this it is necessary to have a single consolidated examination system. We need to have a Coordinating Council for all Madrassas which among other things must create a common curriculum and conduct a common examination. This must be done at the undergraduate level after which different Darul Ulooms can become centers for tertiary specialization in different disciplines. One can be the place to go for specialization in Fiqh, another in Hadith another in Tafseer and so on. That way we would also have a healthy intermixing of students rather than the present clique-like adherence to one or other of the Darul Ulooms without any interaction with anyone else.

8.  Change in Socio-Political stance:

Barring some exceptions, historically Ulama have not played an activist role to correct social evils even though this has specifically been ordered by Allahﷻ. In some cases (as in India) they even colluded with the powers that be to justify oppression. As in the case of the Dalits in India, some Ulama even created the theory of Ashraf and Ardhal among the Muslims, where converts were still considered ‘untouchable’ even by Muslims and continue to be shunned. This is particularly tragic because it is directly contrary to the teachings of Rasoolullahﷺ and against the foundational principles of Islamic Law which does not distinguish between people on the basis of color, race or tribe/family origin. Indian Muslims have created a complete caste system based on the same illogical basis as the Hindu caste system and with the same disastrous results. Yet they are not willing to change and insist for example on marrying only within their ‘caste’ (biradari). It is a shame that this system is even today not deplored and castigated publicly by the Ulama but instead is tacitly supported. Similarly, in the Abbasid times new reverts to Islam were still forced to pay jizya on the ruling that only Arabs were exempt from jizya.

Such policies may have resulted in some additional income into the king’s pocket but discouraged people from entering Islam. Unfortunately, many Ulama of the time supported these policies. Ulama must actively partner with Muslim intellectuals, businessmen, scientists, journalists, media experts, technologists and administrators to jointly develop approaches to situations facing the Muslim community. The current isolation of the Ulama is very regrettable and even dangerous. This isolation must be replaced with a vibrant culture of sharing of thoughts, ideas, hopes, aspirations, fears and apprehensions between Ulama and the learned in other fields. This must be done in an atmosphere of genuine mutual respect and appreciation and a common understanding of the challenges that face us.

The Ulama need to take an assertive, proactive stance in all aspects of society not only to actively combat all attacks on Islam and Muslims but to proactively deal with emerging issues. They need to first identify and select social evils in Muslim society and eradicate them. Then Ulama need to become the social activists who help all oppressed people to fight against their oppressors irrespective of their race or religion. Simultaneously they need to demonstrate and present Islamic models in all aspects of social, political and economic life which will present people with a viable and desirable alternative to the ways that they are currently used to.

9.  Change in attitude towards money: Become financially self sufficient:

Ulama need to rethink their attitude to money and actively work to make their institutions financially self-sufficient by the creation of endowment trusts, financial investments that yield return or other such means. The present situation of financial dependency creates a lack of respect in society and poses a serious hindrance to all developmental work that may be envisaged. Transparency of dealing, financial discipline, planning and control are all essential to establish. We need to be able to demonstrate the efficacy and superiority of Islamic Banking over other ways of banking and how it develops society instead of destroying it.

However, in over 1400 years we don’t have a single viable Islamic financial model on a global scale. This is because our focus has never been on application. Instead our own religious institutions are dependent on charity for their existence. Islam did not come to make beggars out of us. We chose to become beggars instead of becoming philanthropists to the world. That is why we have no influence in society. After all who listens to a beggar? This also makes it difficult for us to criticize those who donate to our Madaaris. In some cases, such people are engaged in banking, cigarette manufacture and other Haraam business or engage in clear Israaf in their lives, yet we can’t say anything to them for fear that they will discontinue their donations. This further harms our own image in the eyes of others.

10.  Change in approach to society at large:

Ulama, Ja’amiaat, Madaaris must focus on social work, especially to eradicate poverty, illiteracy, superstition and ignorance. It is essential for Ulama to be visible in all situations of natural or man-made disasters, giving aid to all people who are affected irrespective of their religion. Ulama and their students can run on-going programs at the village level focused at adult literacy, social awareness, alcohol detoxification, women’s issues, marriage counseling and other such matters. For this, courses in Applied Psychology & Counseling, Law, Public Administration, Teacher’s Training, Montessori Education, Entrepreneurship Development, Rural Development, Agriculture & Animal Husbandry and other subjects can be taught or otherwise made available to Ja’amia students. This will not only give them a way of earning a decent living but will also impact society and demonstrate the value of Muslim institutions to the world. Ulama must learn to work with their hands and not consider that to be beneath their dignity. All kinds of skill courses are available, in most countries funded by government, which Darul Uloom students must take so that by the time they graduate, they will have a marketable skill and become financially independent. Then they can teach Islam with courage and integrity without fearing or trying to please anyone other than Allahﷻ.

11.  Change in approach to women

It is a peculiar situation where on the one hand we talk of Islam as being the first religion that actively worked for the emancipation of women and gave women legal, political and social rights in a society where even their human identity was denied. On the other hand, our (especially Ulama’s) attitude towards women is anything but collaborative and equal. We treat women with hostile suspicion and in most Muslim societies deny them the rights that Islam has given them. Local customs, tribal practices and blatant male domination and patriarchy characterize our attitude towards women. We make no effort to involve them in any serious discourse that has to do with any religious, social or political agenda. Yet we make sanctimonious speeches of how one pious woman can change the whole family. No nation can progress or prosper that refuses to allow more than half its population to participate in nation building. It is a choice that we need to make. The situation has come where if we don’t make the choice according to Islam our women will take the choice out of our hands.

12.  Learning to disagree without being disagreeable

It is a sad situation that as times have changed, we seem to have lost the ability to dispute with concern. Over and over again we see instances of Ulama disputing with each other over various matters, some serious, some trivial but doing this almost invariably in ways which divide the Ummah. Ulama take stances which are hard, use language which is harsh and are unbending and unwilling to change their opinions no matter what logic is presented. At the same time, we talk about the way in which our elders and teachers used to dispute, where as a result of the dispute, their hearts came closer and their understanding of the Deen was clearer. Today therefore it is an essential skill for us to learn; to disagree without being disagreeable. To learn to dispute on matters of principle and understanding but ensure that the hearts are always kept free of all rancor. It is essential to delink one’s ego from the argument so that any situation or interpretation can be discussed and dialogued in detail and in depth so that the best possible way of understanding it comes to light and all those involved can agree on this. In cases where an agreement is not possible, when disagreement follows the rules of keeping the hearts free from hatred and personal conflict, then people can agree to disagree yet remain friends.

In the interest of keeping the Ummah together, it is essential that we follow these rules of disputing so that as a result of the dispute the Ummah does not divide even further.

13.  Tazkiyatun Nafs (Purification of the Soul)

It is an accepted principle in agriculture that one must prepare the ground first before any seed can be planted and be expected to germinate, grow and produce fruit. Without proper preparation of the earth the seed will either not germinate at all or be deficient in its growth. Tazkiyya is the preparation of the heart to receive the knowledge of the Revelation. Without this preparation the knowledge will fall on cold stone and leave it unmoved. The fault lies not with the knowledge but with the lack of preparation. Allahﷻ made Tazkiyya a major role of Nabuwwat (Prophethood) when He said:

A’al Imraan 3: 164.        Indeed Allâh conferred a great favor on the believers when He sent among them a Messenger from among themselves, reciting unto them His Verses (the Qur’ân), and purifying them (tazkiyyatun nafs), and instructing them (in) the Book (the Qur’ân) and Al Hikmah [the wisdom and the Sunnah], while before that they had been in manifest error.

It is a regrettable fact that in the course of years we seem to have lost the importance of Tazkiyya in our teaching system. We seem to concentrate purely on the external without any focus on the internal or hidden aspect of our worship and actions. There is almost no religious institution which takes care to graduate the students with the help of a trained Shaikh through a ‘course’ on Tazkiyya. The correction of the internal aspects of oneself, Baatini Islaah, is a very important aspect of learning that Rasoolullahﷺ and all those who came after him among the great teachers of Islam paid close attention to. Allahﷻ  mentioned this internal aspect of worship in the Qur’an with specific reference to Salah where He said:

Al Mu’minoon 23: 1.       Successful indeed are the believers.2. Those who offer their Salât (prayers) with all solemnity and full submissiveness.

Al Ma’oon 107: 4. So woe unto those performers of Salât 5. Who delay their Salât from their stated fixed times,6. Those who do good deeds only to be seen (by others).

This has specific reference to the intention which is an internal aspect of worship that is a condition of its acceptance with Allahﷻ. A lack of sincerity can nullify the best of deeds.

This is further confirmed by the famous hadith of Niyyah narrated by Sayyidina Omar Ibn Al Khattab (RA) which is usually the first hadith in most books where he reported Rasoolullahﷺ as saying: ‘The reward of deeds is based on their intention.’  Intention is an internal matter, not visible to the outsider but something that is so important that the entire deed depends on it for its validity before Allahﷻ.

Allahﷻ said about the internal aspects of reading and listening to the Qur’an:

Zumar 39:23.  Allâh has sent down the best statement, a Book (this Qur’ân), its parts resembling each other in goodness and truth, oft-repeated. The skins of those who fear their Lord shiver from it (when they recite it or hear it). Then their skin and their heart soften to the remembrance of Allâh. That is the guidance of Allâh. He Guides there-with whom He pleases and whomever Allâh sends astray, for him there is no guide.

Anfaal 8: 2.  The believers are only those who, when Allâh is mentioned, feel a fear in their hearts and when His Verses (this Qur’ân) are recited unto them, they (i.e. the Verses) increase their Faith; and they put their trust in their Rabb (Alone);

I wonder how many times in our Tahfeezul Qur’an class do we ask the student to reflect on what effect the recitation is having on his heart. After all Allahﷻ described the effect it is supposed to have, so it is only logical and natural that we should reflect and examine if our hearts are also responding in this way or not. If they aren’t then we need to question the state of our hearts and take remedial action to bring them alive. Hardness of the heart is a sickness and must be cured. That is why we need to focus on Tazkiyya before we begin any teaching. Allah said about sins:

Al An’am 6:120.   Leave (O mankind, all kinds of) sin, open and secret. Verily, those who commit sin will get due recompense for that which they used to commit.

Al An’am 6:151      And do not go (even) near acts of indecency, open or secret ( al-Fawahish ma zahara minha  wa ma batan ).

Allahﷻ called following one’s desires, Shirk and said:

Al Furqan 25: 43.  Have you (O Muhammad SAW) seen him who has taken as his ilâh (god) his own desire? Would you then be a Wakîl (a disposer of his affairs or a watcher) over him?

Allahﷻ said that the ones who are successful are the ones who purify themselves. He said:

Faatir 35: 18          …..And he who purifies himself (from all kinds of sins), then he purifies only for the benefit of his ownself. 

Al A’ala 87:14. Indeed whosoever purifies himself shall achieve success,

It is clear from these Ayaat as well as many Ahadith and the Seerah of Rasoolullahﷺ that it is essential to pay close attention to Tazkiyatun Nafs if one is to benefit from religious knowledge. In my view it is because we teach Fiqh without attention to Tazkiyya that we produce arrogance and rigidity in the heart of the student. In the current scheme of things, working on one’s own internal issues is left to the student’s own devises. This must be changed forthwith. Without purification of the soul and without a focus on the hidden aspects of worship and conduct, religious education can never be complete. Just as the Salah is not complete with paying attention to its external aspects alone but one must work on developing concentration and dedication until one reaches a level of Ihsaan as described in Hadith Jibreel (AS), narrated by Sayyidina Omar Ibn Al Khattab (RA); no other aspect of Islam will be complete with the external alone.

 Conclusion

As time passes not only are our Ulama getting disconnected with the world but more importantly with our own Ummah. Most ordinary Muslims can’t understand, connect or be influenced by our Ulama. This is a situation that must be changed as a matter of the highest priority.

Ulama who believe that they should be leading the Ummah need to ask how Madrassa education (what we teach and how we do it) prepares them to do so. What changes are necessary? Who will make those changes? What will help and what will hinder? What are the consequences of not changing? Time for Dhuaandaar Taqareer (smoky speeches) is over. It is time to clear the smoke and look at the stark reality. Shooting the messenger will only accelerate our own demise. Those who don’t wish to change and those who follow them, will perish together. That is the harsh reality.

What we need is to sit down and face the reality and even more difficult, face ourselves and our attitudes. Believe me, that will be truly painful. But it is like accepting the pain of the surgery to the alternative of death.

 

Raising children in the West

First, we must define the meaning of ‘The West’. The term, ‘The West’ (Urdu: Maghrib) is used both to pinpoint a location as well as to define a state of mind, an ideology, a philosophy and a way of life (Urdu: Maghribiyat). The former is incidental. The latter is powerful, potentially all pervasive, social engineering, statement of values and a definer of mankind’s actions leading to a new purpose for his life and existence. One is outside you and you live in it. The other is inside you and directs your decisions, desires and actions. It is essential to keep these two definitions in mind when we talk about ‘The West and Islam’. In order to avoid confusion in this article, I am going to call the ideology, ‘Westernism’. Like Islam, ‘Westernism’ is an ideology which is not location specific but is global. As evidence I ask you, what do you call Australia and New Zealand; Western or Eastern? Ask yourself why? So ‘Westernism’ is not only about culture but also about race and racial supremacy.

The secret is the globalization of thought. Technology has facilitated the global spread of this dominant culture and the internalizing of its values where people far removed physically from the West, see themselves in terms that are Western. They appreciate, like, look up to and down on each other on the basis of their adherence to Western values and norms, even though these may be far removed from their own cultures. You can see the effect of this on people’s clothing, the spread of English as the lingua franca of the world, hair styles, foods, drinks (sodas), smileys, emojis, abbreviations (lol, rofl). I can go on but won’t. The same holds for all the symbols of culture. There are still countries where local cultures enforce some level of decorum and bar promiscuity, but all barriers fall in the face of technology. Thanks to the internet, smart phones, Instagram, Netflix, Facebook, and WhatsApp there is no image, no news which can be hidden from the eyes of children if they want to see it. The only guard is the conscience. Nothing else will work. Least of all, force.

Today ‘Westernism’ is the most common, pervasive and widespread ideology in the whole world. ‘Westernism’ is as much a ‘religion’ as is Islam, Christianity or any other traditional religion. It has rules of engagement, conditions of entry and exit, reward and punishment, high priests, temples and evangelists. The fact that these titles are not used to name them is a part of the ideology of ‘Westernism’. But that doesn’t change either the nature or the effect of these symbols and pillars of this new religion. They are powerful, and they are effective. ‘Westernism’ is effective because it panders to every base desire under the illusion of anonymity to make money for the suppliers.

‘Westernism’ is a philosophy which is based on the supremacy of the self (desire) over everything else, including family, friends, society and God. Its symbol is the raising of self-indulgence to the level of not only a virtue but of the very purpose of life, definition of happiness and fulfilment i.e. for one to be able to do whatever one likes, irrespective of its consequences to anyone else. Freedom is sought to be interpreted as freedom from responsibility, accountability and consequences of one’s actions. Just take a look at the many conflicts that have taken place on one such ‘freedom’ alone, ‘Freedom of Expression’, and you know what I mean. The best answer to that was given by Pope Francis who, mentioning the freedom to say whatever one wants in the guise of Freedom of Expression said, “If my secretary were to curse my mother, I would punch him in the face.” What he meant was that there is no freedom without responsibility for what happens when you exercise that freedom. Please note that the Pope is a Westerner, living in the West. Yet his thinking is not ‘Western’ in terms of what I described as ‘Westernism’.

Islam on the other hand is also not ‘Eastern’ but universal. It is like the principles of flight which don’t change whether you are flying a plane in the US or Australia or India. Islam doesn’t change for the West or East or anyone or any place. It is universal, applicable in exactly the same way everywhere and holds its adherents to the same rules no matter where they live, in whichever century and in whichever circumstances. Islam is Islam and it is based on the principle of the supremacy of Allahﷻ over the self or anyone or anything else, accountability to Him from Whom nothing is hidden and the subjugation of the self (desire) to the rules of Islam. Its symbol is the Sajda which is to recognize that obedience to Allahﷻ takes precedence over self-indulgence and the purpose of life and fulfilment is to live and work only for the Pleasure of Allahﷻ.

There is no compromise in Islam about this fundamental philosophy of the Supremacy of Allahﷻ over the Nafs (self, desire) and everything and everyone else. For those who choose to follow their desires against the orders of Allahﷻ, He said:

أَرَأَيْتَ مَنِ اتَّخَذَ إِلَهَهُ هَوَاهُ أَفَأَنتَ تَكُونُ عَلَيْهِ وَكِيلًا

Furqan 25: 43. Have you (O Muhammad) seen him who has taken as his Elah (god) his own desire? Would you then be a Wakil (a disposer of his affairs or a watcher) over him?

Allahﷻ called following your own desires against the orders of Allahﷻ, Shirk and tantamount to worshiping desires instead of worshiping Allahﷻ and even prohibited Rasoolullahﷺ from interceding for the forgiveness of such people. What can be clearer or more serious than that, to understand the fundamental difference between Islam and ‘Westernism’?

Let me quote just one example to show how Supremacy of God was replaced by Supremacy of Man in Christianity. https://biblehub.com/deuteronomy/14-8.htm

In Deuteronomy 14:8 eating pork is clearly prohibited. Yet Christians have ignored this prohibition and pork is the most widely eaten meat in all Christian and Western countries and has been for centuries. The Bible clearly prohibits it, to no avail. The same with prohibition of usury and many other prohibitions of the Bible which are simply ignored. Islam clearly disallows this and nothing which is ordered in the Qur’an or in the Sunnah can be nullified by any Islamic scholar. That is one benefit of not having a priestly class which tends to be susceptible to changing the religion at will.

As you can see, these are two opposing philosophies which are mutually exclusive and irreconcilable. There can never be a compromise between them. One must necessarily submit to the other. That is the distinguishing factor, the signature of the Muslim, that he/she subjugates desire to the Will and Pleasure of Allahﷻ. A Muslim recognizes and joyfully accepts that it is the purpose of his creation to please Allahﷻ and does that in the way taught by Muhammadﷺ the Messenger of Allahﷻ. That is the essence of the Kalima: La ilaha illAllahu Muhammadur Rasoolullahi: There is nobody worthy of worship except Allahﷻ (so I worship him) and Muhammadﷺ is the Messengerﷺ (last and final) of Allahﷻ (so I obey and follow him). There are no qualifiers to this statement of faith, this declaration and oath, thanks to which a person enters Islam. It is a statement that is applicable to every person who wishes to enter Islam and remain in it, whether it is in the East or West or anywhere else. Obedience to Allahﷻ in the way of Rasoolullahﷺ is its essence. And that doesn’t change for anyone or any place.

Is Islam compatible with ‘Westernism’, the philosophy? No, it isn’t. But is it possible for people living in the West; the location, to live by Islam? Yes, without a doubt. That is why I began with the definition because when we ask about raising Muslim children in the West, we are not speaking about what we need to do in the location but what we must do with combating those parts of ‘Westernism’ as an ideology that are antithetical to Islam.

Combat it is. Make no mistake. Like combat, it requires, courage, has risk, is painful; potentially fatal if you fail and joyful and rewarding if you succeed. It is a serious business, not an intellectual exercise. The cost and benefit are both very real. The first thing to teach therefore is to draw attention to the definition above so that people realize that there is nothing ‘special’ about the ‘West’ as a location which requires Islam to be reengineered, interpreted or changed to suit people living in the so-called ‘West’.

What are the challenges of raising a child in the West?

The challenges have nothing to do with the location but with ‘Westernism’, which is global and inside us. What we teach our children and indeed before that, what we need to come to terms with ourselves is the following:

  1. Teach them respect for boundaries by respecting them yourself. Boundaries are the essence of parenting. Teach them that being Muslim means to recognize and accept the Supremacy of Allahﷻ and obedience and allegiance only to Him. This is the most fundamental principle which must be taught, practiced and demonstrated. This must be the differentiator of the Muslim, no matter where he/she lives. This is what drives every decision and action. This is the safety belt. Put it on or die.
  2. It is necessary to define boundaries without fearing unpopularity. Whether it is in parenting or in religion or in politics. All corruption begins when people who should know better, remain silent when they should speak. Christianity is losing people in Europe despite the fact that the church, in order to be popular, has legalized almost everything the Bible prohibits. But it is gaining converts in Asia and Africa where it is not so flexible and where local cultures also support boundaries. People need definitive rules. A free for all may sound nice but in reality, it is free for some, at the expense of others. Boundaries, like seat belts, restrict some freedom but save lives. Security is inversely proportional to convenience.
  3. Teach them to love Allahﷻ which is an outcome of Shukr (Thankfulness). An attitude of gratitude, where we are thankful to Allahﷻ for His mercy and blessings. Allahﷻ said about the Believers, that they love Him more than anything else.

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَتَّخِذُ مِن دُونِ اللّهِ أَندَاداً يُحِبُّونَهُمْ كَحُبِّ اللّهِ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَشَدُّ حُبًّا لِّلّهِ

Baqara 2: 165. And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allah as rivals (to Allah). They love them as they love Allah. But those who believe, love Allah more (than anything else).

  1. Remember that without the Love, Glory and Majesty of Allahﷻ in the heart, obedience becomes a burden. Force or so-called logic are not substitutes, because they can both be countered to one’s own detriment. In Islam, the fundamental rule is that we obey Allahﷻ because He is Allahﷻ. We pray because Allahﷻ told us that it is the way to get close to Him and we want to be close to Him. We don’t pray to ‘discharge static electricity from our heads in Sujood’ (sic). Or because the bending and standing is good for the joints or digestion. We don’t fast because it is good for health. We don’t give Zakat to ensure distribution of wealth in society. We don’t do Hajj to reinforce or show solidarity to the global Muslim Ummah. We do all these because we love Allahﷻ. That is not only sufficient reason, it is the very best of reasons. After all, love begins where reason ends. Allahﷻ ordered us to establish Salah as the way to remember Him and our relationship to Him. He said:

إِنَّنِي أَنَا اللَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدْنِي وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِذِكْرِي

Ta-Ha 20: 14. “Verily! I am Allah! La ilaha illa Ana (none has the right to be worshipped but I), so worship Me, and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat) for My Remembrance.

  1. Teach them the importance and value of the Sunnah by following it yourself. For this it is necessary for us to know who Rasoolullahﷺ is and what the significance of our relationship with him as the one whose way we emulate and follow, is. This must be the very first thing we teach our children by word and deed. Allahﷻ and Rasoolullahﷺ must be the most commonly mentioned names in our homes. They must be the reference points for all our actions, culture, celebrations, events and decisions. ‘Does this please Allahﷻ?’ ‘Is this in keeping with the Sunnah of Rasoolullahﷺ?’ These must be the operative questions for all our decisions. Our children must become used to them from birth. Their absence in any situation must be the point of dissonance for them and give them pause to think.
  2. Allahﷻ told us about the importance of the Sunnah of Rasoolullahﷺ and recommended it as the best example to follow for the one who loves Allahﷻ and looks forward to meeting Him and who remembers Allahﷻ a great deal.

لَقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِّمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الْآخِرَ وَذَكَرَ اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا

Ahzab 33: 21. Indeed in the Messenger of Allah (Muhammad ) you have a good example to follow for him who hopes in (the Meeting with) Allah and the Last Day and remembers Allah much.

  1. Allahﷻ told us that the reward of following the Sunnah of Rasoolullahﷺ is that Allahﷻ will love the one who does that. Make that an aspirational goal for yourself and your children; that you try to earn the love of Allahﷻ. Allahﷻ said:

قُلْ إِن كُنتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَاللّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

A’al Imraan 3: 31.   Say (O Muhammad to mankind): “If you (really) love Allah then follow me (emulate me), Allah will love you and forgive your sins. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”

Teach them (and remind yourself) that the reward of following and emulating Muhammadﷺ is the love of Allahﷻ. No less. Reflect on what that means for you. What does it mean for your dua? What does it mean for when you need Allahﷻ the most, at the time of your death and when we meet Him on the Day of Judgment?

  1. Draw attention to the fact that following the Sunnah is good for us in this life as well, because all that Rasoolullahﷺ taught and did are the secrets to popularity and influence. But when a Muslim follows this with the intention of pleasing Allahﷻ and as a sign of his love for Muhammadﷺ, he earns the love of Allahﷻ. This once again is the relevance of Islam in modern times. The same rules apply today.
  2. Teach them about accountability to Allahﷻ to Whom is our return. Every speech and action of ours must be done with this consciousness. This is the essence of Dhikrullah (Remembering Allahﷻ). Whatever act of worship we do, repeating Allahﷻ’s names and attributes, Salah, Tilawatil Qur’an, fasting, charity and so on are all means to achieve this end i.e. a consciousness of the meeting with Allahﷻ. None of them is an end in itself, but a means to achieve the end which is to gain closeness to Allahﷻ by obeying Him. So, every time there is temptation to disobey, they must learn to ask, ‘Who am I disobeying?’ And not, ‘How big is this act of disobedience?’ They must understand that selective obedience in disobedience and that the essence of Uboodiyat (Submission to Allahﷻ = Islam), is to obey every command joyfully out of love.
  3. Teach them service as the means whereby a Muslim defines himself/herself as being a person who is most useful to society. Teach them the value of service in Islam as the means to earn the pleasure of Allahﷻ and His Forgiveness. Teach them service as being the signature of Islam. Service as the value that differentiates a Muslim from everyone else. Through this we will be able to answer the most common charge that Islam is no longer relevant to modern times. When Muslims are seen as beneficial for everyone in society and that being because of Islam, then the relevance of Islam to all times will be proven beyond anything that anyone can say against it. Allahﷻ said about Muslims being beneficial (service) to others:

كُنتُمْ خَيْرَ أُمَّةٍ أُخْرِجَتْ لِلنَّاسِ تَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَتَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ

A’al Imran 3: 110. You [Muslims] are the best of peoples ever raised up for [the benefit of] mankind; you enjoin Al-Ma’ruf (all that is good and permissible in Islam) and forbid Al-Munkar (all that is harmful and prohibited in Islam), and you believe in Allah. 

Rasoolullahﷺ said, “The best of people are those that bring most benefit to the rest of mankind.” (Daraqutni, Hasan)

  1. Teach them to be thankful to all those through whom we receive Allahﷻ’s blessings, and that it is the best way to win Allahﷻ’s pleasure and the goodwill of the people. Imagine a society where Muslims are known for their attitude of gratitude seeking to help others, solve their problems, stand up for their rights and help those in need. Abu Huraira (RA) reported that Rasoolullah said, “He has not thanked Allah who has not thanked the people.” Sunan Abī Dāwūd 4811 (Sahih)
  2. Teach them to proudly and confidently (not arrogantly) display our differentiators in appearance, worship, dealings, speech and action. We must not blend in as some more numbers in an undifferentiated mass but stand out as notable and valuable individuals. That is the secret of brand. Differentiation. Brand inspires loyalty. Loyalty empowers influence. Without brand you are a grain of rice in a sack.
  3. Teach them the four noble values of Integrity (Truthfulness), Courage, Compassion and Excellence. These are the four core values of Islam. Anyone who lives by them can only be loved, respected and as a result, become influential. Teach them to always speak the truth and be fair and just in all dealings. Teach them to have the courage to stand up for those in need, those being oppressed, and to stand by their principles, no matter who is displeased. Teach them to have compassion and to show compassion and to behave with compassion by helping all those who can’t help themselves. Teach them to put their money and action where their mouth is and act instead of simply talking about values. Teach them to do everything they do and treat everyone they meet in the best possible way, no matter how small or trivial the action may be or who the person they meet, may be. Excellence is to speak and act as if you see Allahﷻ and though you don’t see Him, know that He sees you. This is the definition of Al Ihsaan (Excellence) that Rasoolullahﷺ gave to Jibreelu (AS) in the famous Hadith and it applies to everything we do in life.

Finally, we must remember that children listen with their eyes. They don’t care what you say, until they see what you do. So, raising children has less to do with children and more to do with parents. As you are, so will they be. That is why they are your Sadaqatul Jaariya and not vice versa.

Democracy and Islam

The debate starts once again, “Should Muslims participate in politics in a democracy, since ‘democracy’ is itself not an Islamic form of government?” Let me try to put this in perspective. Before I begin let me state that I am not talking about the philosophy of democracy i.e. Supremacy of the People instead of Supremacy of Allahﷻ. Let me state also that in terms of Islam, the only one worthy of worship and obedience is Allahﷻ and that only Allahﷻ has the right to make laws which He did and His Messengerﷺ conveyed to us. Anyone who considers laws opposed to the laws of Allahﷻ as being superior or even permissible, has committed Shirk. This article is about the issue of Muslims living in democratic countries, often as minorities. What must they do? What options do they have and what are the consequences of these options?

To the question, “Should Muslims participate in politics in a democracy, since ‘democracy’ is itself not an Islamic form of government?” I would like to state that first of all, there is no specific form of government that is ‘Islamic’. If anyone disputes that statement and says that the ‘Khilafa’ is the only form of government that is permissible in Islam, then we have to ask why it is that ever since the ascension of Yazid bin Muawiyya, monarchy has been accepted as ‘Islamic’ even by Sahaba who lived under Yazid and supported his rule? This continued even though the terms, ‘Khalifa’ and ‘Khilafa’ continued to be used off and on, until the institution of Khilafa was finally abolished in 1923. For the record, the Ottoman rulers called themselves ‘Sultan’ and not ‘Khalifa’, though the government itself was called ‘Khilafa’. How does that work?

So, what is the Islamic form of government?

Islam is concerned with the nature of the government and not necessarily its form.

Consider this: the Khilafa Rashida itself followed three different processes to choose a successor in the case of the first three Khulafa.

In the case of Abu Bakr Siddique (R) it was an election of the Supreme Leader by lesser leaders in Madina. This was the usual way of the Arabs when electing a new Ameer or Chief of their clans where the decision would be taken by a few significant and powerful elders/leaders and everyone else would accept and support it. So also, in this case, it was not one-man-one-vote involving the entire population of Madina. Even if it had been, hypothetically speaking one could have argued that the people of Makkah, Ta’aif, Najd and all the tribes of the Hijaz had not voted. Yet, the leader being chosen would have authority over all Muslims. Abu Bakr Siddique (R) was elected by the people who had gathered in the Saqifa Bani Sa’ada and was later ratified by the rest of the community in Masjid An-Nabawi when other people gave him the Baya (Oath or Pledge) of Allegiance. In the election in the Saqifa Bani Sa’ada, which itself was not planned but was impromptu, many of the important Sahaba of Rasoolullahﷺ including Sayyidina Ali bin Abi Talib (R) were not present and neither was their opinion sought. This was not deliberate or by design but because Ali bin Abi Talib (R) was busy with the burial of Rasoolullahﷺ he was not disturbed, and he gave his pledge the next day.

But since Abu Bakr Siddique (R) was already accepted as the foremost among the Sahaba and was their leader, nobody objected and they all, including Ali bin Abi Talib (R) gave him their Pledge. They remembered that Rasoolullahﷺ had always sought his advice and used to give him precedence over everyone else because of him having been the first man to accept Islam and for his service to Islam and to Rasoolullahﷺ. They remembered that Abu Bakr (R) was Rasoolullahﷺ’s companion in the cave during their Hijra from Makkah to Madina. People remembered that Rasoolullahﷺ had given him Imamat of Salah from the Thursday before the Monday when he passed away. For the Sahaba, that was a clear sign that Rasoolullahﷺ preferred and had thereby nominated Abu Bakr Siddique (R) as his successor. Having said that, there are people to this day, fourteen centuries later, who differ and say that the Khilafa should have gone to Ali bin Abi Talib (R).

The fact that Ali bin Abi Talib (R) himself never said this nor did he object to the leadership of Abu Bakr Siddique (R) and gladly gave his Baya (oath) of Allegiance with sincerity (what else do we expect of Ali bin Abi Talib (R)?) cuts no ice with them. We will put that dispute aside as it is not relevant to this discussion and look at what happened two years later, when Sayyidina Abu Bakr Siddique (R) was dying.

Abu Bakr Siddique (R) took the advice of the Asharum Mubashshara (the 10 Sahaba who had been given the good news of Jannah by Rasoolullahﷺ) about his proposed choice, Omar ibn Al Khattab (R), as his successor. All of them except one (Zubair bin Awwam (R)) accepted this choice and so Abu Bakr Siddique (R) called Omar ibn Al Khattab (R) and nominated him. This action of Abu Bakr Siddique (R) was in keeping with the informal but clearly understood and accepted hierarchy among the Sahaba in which the Asharum Mubashshara came first followed by the Badriyyeen (Sahaba who participated in the Battle of Badr) and then everyone else.

Ten years later when Omar ibn Al Khattab (R) had been stabbed and was dying, he called the rest of the Asharum Mubashshara and told them to choose one among them to succeed him. Some of them declined to accept the role of Khalifa. There were two contenders who remained. Abdur Rahman ibn Awf (R), who was a scholar among the Sahaba and one of the wealthiest businessmen of the time was himself from the Asharum Mubashshara and who had declined to be considered for Khilafa, was chosen to pick between them. He decided to consult the Sahaba who had participated in the Battle of Badr and other significant leaders in Madina and at the end of this consultation, he borrowed the Amama (turban) of Rasoolullahﷺ and wearing it, he ascended the Minbar of Masjid An-Nabawi and announced Othman ibn Affan (R) as the leader who had been chosen to succeed Omar ibn Al Khattab (R). Everyone accepted this choice, including Ali bin Abi Talib (R) who had also accepted Omar ibn Al Khattab (R) as Khalifa and worked under him as a judge.

Othman ibn Affan (R)’s Khilafa ended in war and Ali bin Abi Talib (R) was forced to accept the Khilafa to put an end to the worst turmoil and violence that the Muslims had ever seen. However, this was also contested, and we have a history of ever more complex conflicts thereafter. Once again, I am not going into details here as they are not relevant. What is relevant however, is that twenty years later, when Muawiyya bin Abi Sufyan (R) was dying, he nominated his son Yazid bin Muawiyya (also called Yazid I) as Khalifa, thereby dispensing with the entire selection/election process and converting the Khilafa into a hereditary monarchy.

This became the default Muslim (Islamic) form of government all over the world, from the Banu Umayyah who started it, to the Banu Abbas, Fatimi, Ayyubi, Saffavid, Mughal, Uthmani (Ottoman) and other rulers right down to our modern times, who all accepted hereditary monarchy as the way Muslim lands were to be governed. Before we blame the kings however, let us reflect on the fact that none of their subjects, including Sahaba, all the Imams of Fiqh, all the Ulama of the Tabiyyin and their followers including to this day, have ever criticized or refused to accept hereditary monarchy, calling it ‘unislamic’ nor called for the establishment of the Khilafa. One reason could be that the Khilafa Rashida itself was established in three different ways. So, which of them would one choose?

The point that I want to make is that it appears from reading our history that Islam is more concerned with the nature of government than its form. Our great classical and modern scholars seem to be agreed upon this and this seems to be the majority view. Islam is concerned with how the government is carried on; whether it establishes the laws of Allahﷻ as mentioned in the Qur’an and Sunnah, whether it establishes justice or not, whether the poor and weak are taken care of, whether there is corruption or not, and whether law is enforced so that crime is minimized if not eradicated. It is not concerned with how the government itself came into being or its structure, if that government does what all good governments are supposed to do i.e. good governance. Therefore, different forms of governments were accepted as valid and legal if they provided good governance.

Of course, from the Islamic point of view, for a government to be considered Islamic, whichever form of government it may be, it must follow the Divine Laws of the Shari’ah and must not legislate against the Laws of Allahﷻ. Governments are free to legislate and pass laws to ensure the best for all people, without denying, altering or going against Divine Laws. For examples, laws of taxation, zoning of cities, regulation of road traffic and so on can be made because they don’t contradict the Laws of Allahﷻ. However, laws which make Halaal what Allahﷻ prohibited, for example, interest-based banking, consumption of alcohol and other addictive substances and so on, are not permissible and any government that makes such laws would be unislamic even if the government was run by Muslims.

I am not claiming that democracy is the best form of government from a Islamic theological or philosophical perspective but that it is the best among all that exist today. There are some clear issues about parliamentary democracy which must be borne in mind. A parliamentary democracy is the rule by political parties, where the party which gets the most votes rules the country. This means that independent candidates, no matter how good they are, have no chance to be effective or to be able to form a government. Candidates who stand on tickets from any political party must necessarily follow the party line in all matters, no matter what their own opinion may be. The party is run, not always by elected representatives but often by its ideologues and leaders, who need not be elected at all but who direct all policies and actions of the party.

It is in this context that we must look at democracy today when some people say that Muslims must not participate in democracy because it is not ‘Islamic’. My contention is that there is no such thing as an ‘Islamic’ form of government. What is ‘Islamic’ about a government, lies in its actions of governing. Obviously, there is great misunderstanding about forms of government which is exacerbated by our general lack of knowledge of history so that we have no perspective or decision-making ability. We must correct this urgently.

What is the role of Muslim citizens who live in democratic countries? Should they participate in government, from voting, to standing for election to discharging their responsibilities in difference capacities in Parliaments and Senates? Or should they abstain from doing any of these things. And if they should abstain, then how are they to ensure that their rights, needs and issues are represented and addressed by a government that they didn’t elect or show any interest in?

My contention is that democracy, like monarchy is simply a form of government; in terms of governance. Citizens of democratic countries must participate in democracy for the simple reason that all change can only be initiated and implemented from within. As a matter of interest, if we take the very first form of government of the Muslim State after Rasoolullahﷺ passed away, it was a ‘democratic’ decision. As I mentioned earlier, it was different from our present form of universal suffrage leading to universal suffering (except for politicians) but it was democracy, nevertheless.

The argument that most of these countries are not Muslim (meaning that the rulers are not Muslim) is met with two arguments:

  1. How ‘Islamic’ is a government where the rulers are Muslim but permit interest-based banking in their realms, when they know perfectly well that Allahﷻ not only prohibited it but declared war on behalf of Himself and His Messengerﷺ on those who participate in interest-based banking? How can a government, which is classified as an enemy of Allahﷻ by the definition of the Qur’an, be called Islamic?
  2. In the Shari’ah we follow the principle that if you can’t do (have) everything, you don’t reject or stop doing everything.

So, if we can’t have the perfect state of government that Rasoolullahﷺ provided when he was the ruler, we will live with and support rulers (and governments) who provide justice, safety, law & order, economic development and general protection of rights and privileges even if they do other things which are not perfect. We don’t support them in things which are against Islamic law (e.g. we will not participate in interest-based banking, even if it is allowed in the country) but we will support them in everything that is for the benefit of everyone.

Authority can be delegated. Not responsibility. Responsibility remains with the original person. Meaning that if the one to whom authority was delegated fails to perform, it is the one who delegated it, who will still be responsible. Often there is confusion between authority and responsibility. Authority is the permission to act. Responsibility refers to the consequences of the action. That is why training is very important, before delegating authority. The ruler delegates authority to various officials, but the responsibility remains with the ruler whether they succeed or fail. It will be called the success or failure of the ruler. So also, the CEO, Head of Family or whatever; delegates and should delegate authority, because he or she can’t do everything themselves. But the responsibility i.e. accountability, remains with them. If they delegate authority without preparing their subordinates or delegate it to people who are incompetent, then it is their rule or tenure or performance which would have failed.

We, the people of the nation, through the ballot box have delegated the responsibility of running the nation to those we elected. Hence, we retain the responsibility for their success or failure. It comes back to my favorite political quote: “We get the government we deserve”.

We should realize that we have delegated authority. Not responsibility. So, if those to whom authority was delegated, failed, we need to take back the authority and realize that to give ourselves good government is our responsibility, not anyone else’s.

In conclusion I would like to state clearly and unequivocally that Muslims living in democratic countries must participate in government in every way knowing that it is entirely in keeping with Islam to do so. They must participate because Islam orders them to support all that is beneficial for everyone, Muslim or otherwise and to do that in a way that showcases Islam for the rest of the world. Muslims must participate in democracy, because only by participation can we ensure that our interests are addressed, and our needs met. We have seen many examples of what happens when we don’t participate.

The first thing to do therefore is to ensure that your name is listed as a voter. Then YOU MUST GO TO VOTE. Whether it is raining or not, whatever be the situation, you MUST GO AND VOTE. Remember this is the only opportunity that you have in a democracy to be heard, to influence your own future and to protect yourself from those who wish to hurt you.

Finally, a party is elected not by the majority of the population of the country but by the majority of those who cast their vote. This last line is the key to modern democracies and the reason why you must vote. If you don’t enroll yourself and don’t go and vote, then don’t blame anyone else for the result. You are responsible, and you will pay the price.

 

Example for our times

They say that reading biographies is perhaps the best way to learn real life lessons. That is because a biography is a record of practice. Of what worked and what didn’t. The life of Muhammadﷺ is perhaps one of the most well documented in human history. Having said that one may ask why his life and all the detail is important at all?

The answer lies in the facts related to his life which are public knowledge. Here was someone who in a period of 23 years, took his people from being the weakest, most despised and oppressed in their community to being the leaders and role models in the same community. And he did all that without lies, cheating, corruption, violence or bloodshed. My question is, ‘Would you like to know how to do that? Would you like to know how to bring about not incremental but transformational change in your society? Then read the life of Muhammadﷺ.’

In the words of J. Krishnamurty, ‘It is no measure of health to be well adjusted to a profoundly sick society.’ I don’t think there is anyone, including the 1% who appear to have it all who will disagree that we are very sick. Humanity is sick. The earth is sick. We are all very sick. We need action. And we need it now.

Call it a strange coincidence but 5th Century Makkah was a microcosm of our global capitalist, pluralist, multicultural, multiracial society. I want to hypothesize that because Muhammadﷺ despite being a person with almost no resources, support or political power, could bring about a complete transformation of his society, then we have reason to hope that the methods he used can work today for us as well.

To quote Alphonse de Lamartine, in his book, ‘History of Turkey’ who said, “If greatness of purpose, smallness of means and astonishing results are the three criteria of a human genius, who could dare compare any great man in history with Muhammad?”

Muhammadﷺ didn’t focus on bringing about any materialistic changes in the lives of people. The changes he brought about ideological, ethical and moral, changed not only their lives but also changed the structure, laws, freedom and behavior of Arab society. Muhammadﷺ brought about changes in the way people thought, in their ideals and benchmarks which led to a change in what they considered important, which in turn led to a change in their behavior which brought about a change in society. As they say, it all begins at the top; in the mind. Once we change our attitude, our behavior changes which leads to perceptible results in and around us. All change must begin with us internally, with how we view the world, what we want from it, what we find satisfaction in and what we are prepared to do (and not do) to get it. We need to define the meaning of a ‘good life’ and be clear about what investment we are prepared to make, to get it.

There are two critical requirements that distinguish all real human development. These are the reasons we remember all great leaders who changed the world. They are concern and compassion. Muhammadﷺ exemplified these in his life and message. Any development that is not based on compassion is not development but regression to a time when the one who had the sword chopped a man in half to test its sharpness, legally. What’s legal is not necessarily right. Example: Apartheid is official and legal in Israel today.

But is it right?

 

 

For more please read:

Leadership Lessons from the Life of Rasoolullahﷺ

Kindle link to Free e-book  – http://www.amazon.com/Leadership-Lessons-Life-Rasoolullah-ebook/dp/B00ED0JC70/

Amazon link – http://www.amazon.com/Leadership-Lessons-Life-Rasoolullah-techniques/dp/1479284033/

Link to free e-book which can be read on any device: http://bit.ly/1zzEC8t